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Neolithic Revolution

Subject: Archaeology

[Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two ...

Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
49 words

... Revolution [Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two critical moments in early history (the other he called the Urban Revolution...

Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two critical moments in early ...
Secondary Products Revolution

Secondary Products Revolution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Th]An explanatory model published in 1981 by Andrew Sherratt to account for a series of changes in the later Neolithic material culture and subsistence base in central and northern Europe. Sherratt ...
Jarmo, Iraq

Jarmo, Iraq  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955, the site is important because of its early ...
Neolithic

Neolithic ([CP])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
125 words

...been exaggerated in the past by the use of the term ‘Neolithic Revolution’. The appearance of Neolithic culture is dated variously from around 8000 bc in the Middle East to the 5th and 4th millennia bc in Atlantic...

Secondary Products Revolution

Secondary Products Revolution ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
69 words

...Products Revolution [Th] An explanatory model published in 1981 by Andrew Sherratt to account for a series of changes in the later Neolithic material culture and subsistence base in central and northern Europe. Sherratt took the changes to indicate a fundamental shift away from flood‐plain agriculture towards a reliance on domestic livestock, especially their ‘secondary’ products such as traction power for wheeled vehicles and ploughs, wool, and...

Jarmo, Iraq

Jarmo, Iraq ([Si])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
146 words

...Iraq [Si] A Neolithic village site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near Kirkuk in northwest Iraq. Excavated by Robert Braidwood between 1948 and 1955 , the site is important because of its early evidence for food production. Sixteen main levels were defined within the 7 m thick stratigraphy, the first eleven of which lacked pottery. The earliest levels date to the 7th millennium bc and reveal the presence of mud‐brick houses. Cereals at the site include wheat and barley, and there was equipment present for processing the grain. Field pea,...

Cyprus

Cyprus   Reference library

Joseph A. Greene and Thomas W. Davis

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,507 words

...and Protohistoric Cyprus , 2008. Metcalf, D. M. Byzantine Cyprus, pp. 491–1191, 2009. Peltenburg, E. J. , ed. Early Society in Cyprus , 1989. Reyes, A. T. Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence , 1994. Simmons, A. H. The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East , 2007. Steel, L. Cyprus Before History , 2004. Wright, G. R. H. Ancient Building in Cyprus , 1992. Joseph A. Greene ; revised by Thomas W....

Secondary Products Revolution

Secondary Products Revolution   Reference library

Andrew Sherratt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,179 words

...; Horse, Domestication of the ; Land Transportation: Use of Animals for Transportation ; Pastoralism ; Textiles ; Uruk ; Wheel, The . ] Barber, Elizabeth J. W. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages , 1991. Chapman, J. “The ‘Secondary Products Revolution’ and the Limitations of the Neolithic.” Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology 19 (1982): 107–122. Childe, V. Gordon . Man Makes Himself, 1936. Dahl, G. , and A. Hjort . Having Herds: Pastoral Herd Growth and Household Economy , 1976. Payne,...

Sardinia

Sardinia   Reference library

Stephen L. Dyson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,800 words

...again there is no clear evidence of new pottery-producing groups arriving from the mainland. More likely is that the various elements of the Neolithic revolution reached Sardinia via the existing trade networks and were integrated to form a distinctly Sardinian Neolithic culture. By the end of the sixth millennium BC, the island Neolithic culture was well established. Several phases of the Sardinian Neolithic have been identified, mainly through ceramic changes. The most interesting developments came with the late Ozieri phase. It was characterized by...

Fragmentation

Fragmentation   Reference library

Bisserka Gaydarska

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,051 words

...intra- and inter-site refits ranging from Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain to sixteenth-century America illustrate the acknowledged significance of taphonomy but also the overlooked potential of refits for fragmentation studies. The chaîne opératoire , microstratigraphy, and artifact biography were integrated into a methodology for the close examination of each object from two entirely excavated sites (clay figurines from the Copper Age site near Dolnoslav in Bulgaria, and Spondylu s shell rings from the Late Neolithic site Dimini in Greece) in order to...

Beer and Brewing

Beer and Brewing   Reference library

Lisa C. Kahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,273 words

...proposed that the Neolithic revolution, the turn toward the domestication of plants, was primed by a cultural preference for beer. The appearance of seeds of domesticated wheat and barley at about 8000 BC on sites in the Levant such as Tell Aswad, Jericho , and Nahal Oren attests to the importance of the processed grain. Archaeologists Solomon H. Katz and Mary Voight attribute the development of settled agriculture to the desire to brew beer. According to their theory, the social and religious impact of alcohol on the Neolithic societies, in addition...

Subsistence

Subsistence   Reference library

Steven Rosen

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,690 words

...Archaic Mexico has been defined by K. V. Flannery as a “broad spectrum economy.” It is this economy, combined with increased specialization focused on specific elements within this spectrum, that provides the background for the emergence of food production. Neolithic Adaptations. The earliest Neolithic or Archaic subsistence systems were based on the farming of domesticated grains complemented by hunting and the gathering of wild plants. Domestication of these grains seems to have occurred independently in the Near East (wheat and barley), Southeast Asia...

Near East

Near East   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Thomas E. Levy, Ianir Milevski, Bonnie L. Wisthoff, David Ilan, Assaf Yasur-Landau, and John L. Meloy

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,726 words

...production. The eminent prehistorian V. Gordon Childe referred to this transition as the “Neolithic revolution.” Even today, many decades after Childe introduced the term and after hundreds of new sites have been discovered and excavated, the profound shift from foragers to food producers does indeed warrant the descriptive term of “revolution.” By becoming food producers no longer dependent on the distribution of wild plant and animal resources for subsistence, Neolithic communities in the Near East laid the foundations for the emergence of hierarchical...

Trade, Prehistoric

Trade, Prehistoric   Reference library

Robin Torrence, Mark Edmonds, Robin Torrence, and Andrew Sherratt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
4,670 words

...tools throughout the Neolithic and for some time during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. In some parts of Europe, broad continuities in the treatment and context of the earliest copper and bronze axes suggest that these new items came to supplant their stone and flint counterparts. This pattern is not repeated everywhere, but it reminds us that what we often regard as a technical revolution was stimulated as much by the negotiation of social relationships as it was by practical demand. [ See also Europe: The European Neolithic Period ; Europe: The...

British Isles

British Isles   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Richard Bradley, Joshua Pollard, David J. Mattingly, Catherine Hills, Lloyd Laing, Richard A. Hall, Ken Dark, Matthew H. Johnson, and R. Angus Buchanan

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
14,709 words

...in the facilities for rapid transport and instantaneous communication, and in the spread of urban culture and secularization. The transformation bears comparison with the Neolithic revolution and urban revolution of the ancient world in terms of the profound changes that it caused in the living conditions of human societies. The second certainty about the Industrial Revolution is that it occurred first in Britain. There were many historical reasons for this. Britain was well endowed with the natural resources—especially coal—that were essential for the...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Anthony Sinclair, Steven Mithen, Nicky Milner, Chris Scarre, Andrew Sherratt, Sarunas Milisauskas, Anthony F. Harding, John Collis, Greg Woolf, and Matthew H. Johnson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
18,026 words

...of Europe, by the first field monuments. These changes no doubt reflect a significant growth in population. At the same time, there is evidence of a new attitude toward the landscape, which suggests that the beginning of the Neolithic in Europe was as much a cultural revolution as an economic one. Southeast Europe. European Neolithic communities appeared earliest in the southeast, in Greece and the Balkans. These were the areas closest to the early centers of plant and animal domestication in the Near East. The early crop regimes of Greece and the Balkans...

China

China   Reference library

Sarah Milledge Nelson, Sarah Milledge Nelson, Sarah Milledge Nelson, Adam Kessler, Julie M. Segraves, Julie M. Segraves, Chen Xingcan, and Magnus Fiskesjö

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
15,580 words

...before the era of early dynasties and beyond the confines of central China. Emergence of Neolithic Cultures. Neolithic cultures appeared in China at the start of the Holocene era (ca. 11,000 BP), when the fauna of the Pleistocene era became extinct. Comprehensive studies of stone tools indicate that early Chinese Neolithic cultures developed from their predecessors of the Late Paleolithic (ca. 50,000 BP–10,000 BP). Some scholars now identify the earliest Chinese Neolithic cultures as preceramic types, maintaining that these developed directly out of the Late...

Mediterranean World

Mediterranean World   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Curtis Runnels, Christine E. Morris, and Brian A. Sparkes

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,050 words

...trade routes among sites in different physical settings, has been invoked as a contributing factor. The Mediterranean Basin was settled by Neolithic agriculturalists in less than five millennia. In southern Greece the transition from foraging to farming can be seen at Franchthi Cave, which has a stratified sequence from the Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic, indicating that the transition to the Neolithic was rapid and abrupt. The movement of farmers from the Near East to Greece and the rest of Europe, documented by the presence of animal and plant...

Land Transportation

Land Transportation   Reference library

Chris Scarre, Andrew Sherratt, and Andrew Sherratt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
3,741 words

...hominids must have had trackways between favored eating or sleeping places, and between water sources, hunting grounds, and stone supplies, but these have left no recoverable traces. We are on firm ground only when communities began to build or mark trackways during the Neolithic and later in Europe and elsewhere. Some of the earliest known trackways are those which have been preserved in the peat bogs of northern Europe. The oldest of all is the Sweet Track in the Somerset Levels of southwest England. This was an ingenious raised-plank walkway running...

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