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Overview

strategic misrepresentation

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus ...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
75 words

... misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
78 words

... misrepresentation In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from optimism bias , planning fallacy , or simple miscalculation. Those who adopt such a policy would probably justify it as an expected part of the negotiation ‘game’ and argue that many worthwhile projects would never get approval if the true costs were revealed at the...

strategic misrepresentation

strategic misrepresentation  

In planning and budgeting, the tendency for those presenting projects for approval knowingly to understate costs and overstate benefits. This is a matter of deliberate policy and thus distinct from ...
Ancient Trade Routes

Ancient Trade Routes   Reference library

Oxford Bible Atlas (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
972 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...important was his establishment of a fleet of ships at Ezion‐geber at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba, with access to the Red Sea. This was achieved in partnership with Hiram of Tyre ( 1 Kgs. 9: 26–8 ). The significance of this must be seen in conjunction with the much misrepresented story of the visit of the Queen of Sheba from south Arabia. For all her apparent interest in Solomon's wisdom, it is perhaps his commercial wisdom which was particularly attractive and the primary purpose of the relationship was probably trade. She came bearing gold and...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pretty transparently, arose from the need to legitimize the British acquisition of the Cape in 1802 . The authoritative character of exploratory writing was undermined not only by these forms of incoherence but also by the association of the genre with fantasy and misrepresentation. While a few notable explorers, such as Cook and Park, were widely presented as exemplary heroes, others, including James *Bruce , were sometimes regarded as charlatans. Because the value of a particular journey was so closely identified with new discoveries and with the...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

C. S. Rodd and C. S. Rodd

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
62,266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Psalter ( e. 14) is an indication that some, perhaps all, of the psalms are self-conscious poetic creations. Certainly an awareness of the skill of the poet will add to our appreciation of the psalms. There is, nevertheless, a danger that modern conventions and fashions will misrepresent the intentions and art of the poet. Once again we are faced with the ‘then’ and the ‘now’, and every literary approach needs to be tempered with a sense of the historical. 14. It will be seen that the demands made upon the commentary writer are immense. Certainly it is quite...

planning fallacy

planning fallacy  

The demonstrated tendency for people to underestimate the length of time it will take them to complete a task. Various explanations have been offered, including optimism bias, failure to allow for ...
tactical voting

tactical voting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In a first‐past‐the‐post electoral system a vote is tactical when it is cast for a candidate that the voter believes is more likely to win than their preferred candidate, to best influence who wins ...
optimism bias

optimism bias  

The tendency for people to be optimistic about future events, especially those seen as following from their own plans and actions. Although optimism is no doubt a stimulus to enterprise, it has ...
optimism bias

optimism bias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
125 words

...for managers to underestimate costs and duration and to overestimate benefits ( see planning fallacy ). This being so, there is now an explicit requirement for those managing government projects in the UK to include an adjustment for optimism bias. See also strategic misrepresentation...

identity politics

identity politics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
119 words

... sex , or sexual orientation ) shared by a group that feels it is marginalized, underrepresented, and misrepresented ( see also marginalization ; offensiveness ). It seeks the defence of its rights as a subordinated minority and is reflected in such forms as feminism , gay activism, and religious fundamentalism. Attacked by critics ( see also queer theory ) as essentialism , its apologists sometimes refer to it as a pragmatic strategy of strategic essentialism in a struggle for equal rights. The related concept of ‘identity work’ frames identities as...

planning fallacy

planning fallacy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
159 words

...unexpected events of all kinds). The best antidote to planning fallacy is to research how long comparable projects have taken in the past (which can be accurately known), rather than making assumptions about the future (which cannot). See also Hofstadter’s law ; strategic misrepresentation...

place marketing

place marketing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
155 words

...perhaps working with local businesses. It is a form of strategic advertising designed to attract new public or private investments, tourists, and new residents to a particular locality. Place marketing became widespread in Western countries after the long period of post- 1970 deindustrialization and the various economic recessions of the 1970s and 1980s. Towns and cities tried to be more entrepreneurial , taking measures to set accumulation on a new path. Place marketing cannot afford to misrepresent a place. Instead, it has to put a positive spin on...

tactical voting

tactical voting   Quick reference

Stephen Fisher

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
300 words

...seats in 1997 , 2001 and 2005 were lost by the Conservatives as a result, although not all tactical voting is anti-Conservative. There are also strategic incentives to misrepresent one’s preferences in other electoral systems ( see Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem ). Typically they are much weaker and the frequency of strategic behaviour is correspondingly lower. Whilst the terms tactical voting and strategic voting are synonymous, sophisticated voting generally refers to behaviour in (particularly US Congressional) committees where there are defined agenda...

managerial cybernetics

managerial cybernetics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Sub-optimization The pursuit of narrow local objectives at the expense of overall objectives. Myopia The pursuit of short-term targets at the expense of long-term strategic objectives. Measure fixation Despite a measure not fully capturing all of the dimensions of an associated objective, the pursuit of the reported measure rather than furthering the associated objective. Misrepresentation The deliberate manipulation of data. Misinterpretation The performance indicator system misinterpreting the data provided. Gaming Minimizing the apparent scope for...

Tea

Tea   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...also been explained as an acronym (Taxed Enough Already). Detractors accuse the movement of misrepresenting key events in American history in order to align their cause – which is somewhat difficult to define precisely, as the movement is not a political party in the true sense, and has no central leadership – with the beliefs of the founding fathers . Teapot Dome Scandal A corruption scandal that affected US president Harding’s administration in the 1920s. For strategic reasons the government had acquired a number of US oil fields, and from 1921 the...

Game Theory

Game Theory   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,494 words

...and preferences. Here are some of the results in shorthand version. In three-person games, individual notions of justice or equity often seem to take priority before monetary gains; a dollar tends to divided equally rather than the 50-50-0 indicated by the theory. The analyst misrepresents the game by failing to take these norms into account in the utility functions of the actors. In two-person zero-sum games with merely two or three options, players tend to be able to identify the saddle point if one exists and act accordingly; this is not the case when the...

Empirically Assessing the Bargaining Theory of War: Potential and Challenges

Empirically Assessing the Bargaining Theory of War: Potential and Challenges   Reference library

Erik A. Gartzke and Paul Poast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,839 words

...( 1995 ) is at pains to emphasize that uncertainty must be combined with incentives to misrepresent information on the part of actors. Otherwise, private information can simply be communicated publicly, resolving the asymmetric information problem. However, while indisputable in technical terms, incentives to deceive appear to follow directly from the bargaining context, when actors dispute the distribution of goods or benefits. Whether incentives to misrepresent vary in the same bargaining context remains an open, and interesting, question. 17. Also,...

Rupmahal Theatre

Rupmahal Theatre   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Indian Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
1,087 words

...vitality perfectly conveyed the psyche of a patriot. The guile of the elder statesman Thangal was depicted by Bira, also the director. The very popularity of the play got Rupmahal entangled with the establishment again. The families of the Indian officials objected to the ‘misrepresentation’ of their forebears and the police seized the text. All subsequent performances relied on scripts rewritten from memory by the cast. Public support helped continue the production. Rupmahal's conservative management consolidated establishment values, while occasionally...

legal profession, public, and employed sector

legal profession, public, and employed sector   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,334 words

...is a barrister in chambers or a partner in a law firm. Both own their own businesses: one as a self‐employed practitioner renting space and support in chambers; the other as part of a, sometimes very sizeable, partnership structure. Nevertheless, the paradigm is in fact a misrepresentation. Over 60 per cent of all solicitors with practising certificates are in fact employees within their firms; and it is increasingly reported that the ‘ultimate prize’ of partnership is no longer the goal of a substantial proportion of this salaried sector. The solicitors'...

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