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Overview

Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

categorical imperative

categorical imperative  

In Kantian ethics, the universal moral law, by which all rational beings are by duty constrained to act. The term was introduced in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785).[...]
Ethics, Environmental

Ethics, Environmental   Reference library

Willis JENKINS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,159 words

...moral reasoning. Consequentialism—the practice of maximizing the good—is one such tradition, and one of the most widely used, particularly through market-based approaches to environmental problems (in which the good is represented by human utility). The duty-based ethics of a deontological or Kantian tradition (the tradition of doing the right) is another, and is especially favored by ethicists emphasizing respect for intrinsic value or integrity. Aristotelian virtue traditions, Stoic cosmopolitanism, and natural law traditions are other major Western forms of...

philosophy and science

philosophy and science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,129 words

...rational action, they believed understanding science to be a necessary preliminary to philosophical studies and political life alike. The other main school of thought about the relations between science and philosophy sheltered a number of different traditions including Kantianism, neo Kantianism, idealism, Hegelianism, and phenomenology . Some who fell into this eclectic group were interested in science but rejected the positivist analysis of it. William Whewell ( 1794–1866 ), for example, thought that positivists had the relation between science and...

Development—Concepts and Considerations

Development—Concepts and Considerations   Reference library

Jeremy BENDIK-KEYMER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,574 words

...human rights to human agency (i.e., the capacity to act), and these are similar to the capability approach. Commonly called “neo-Kantian” approaches due to their indebtedness to the eighteenth-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant , they differ from the capability approach only in taking the idea of the agent (or person) as primary, rather than the idea of the flourishing (or prospering) human being. The idea for neo-Kantian approaches is to derive what we must have from what we need in order to act ( Gewirth 1996 ). Surprisingly, the rights...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...through the institution of rights. These different approaches have implications for the constituency of ethics—who is to count. For the utilitarian, if a being has welfare interests then it counts—as such it classically involves an extension to incorporate all sentient beings, human and nonhuman, present and future. Intrinsic-value rights theorists allow any being that is an end in itself to be included. They differ on whom that incorporates: Kantians extend rights to persons, animal-rights theorists to sentient beings, biocentric rights theory to all living...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

Alan C. Tjeltveit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
12,148 words

...) and the expulsion of ethics from psychology, some psychologists and ethicists began to endorse a closer relationship between psychological research and ethics. This took a variety of forms, from articulating ways in which psychology can legitimately inform ethics, to blurring the boundaries between psychology and ethics, to psychology being employed in ethics-inspired advocacy and activism, to exploring particular ways in which ethics can and cannot legitimately be employed in psychology. The view that science can inform ethics began to be espoused (...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...through the institution of rights. These different approaches have implications for the constituency of ethics—who is to count. For the utilitarian, if a being has welfare interests then it counts—as such it classically involves an extension to incorpo-rate all sentient beings, human and nonhuman, present and future. Intrinsic-value rights theorists allow any being that is an end in itself to be included. They differ on whom that incorporates: Kantians extend rights to persons, animal-rights theorists to sentient beings, biocentric rights theory to all...

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism   Reference library

Liesbet de Kock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,444 words

...of the ways in which Helmholtz appropriated the Kantian a priori (and aspects of its further elaboration by J. G. Fichte) within his empirical theory of perception. The analysis offered is structured as follows: 1. After some introductory notes about the caveats to be taken into account in exploring Helmholtz’s relation to Kantian philosophy, Helmholtz’s Kantian interpretation of Johannes Müller’s Law of Specific Nerve Energies is discussed (“Helmholtz, Müller and the Dawn of Physiological Neo-Kantianism”); 2. Second, Helmholtz’s adoption of Kant’s a...

Intergenerational Equity

Intergenerational Equity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...be better to work toward strong sustainability, conserving the maximum feasible amounts of natural capital to maintain the options for the future. [ See also Belief Systems ; Conservation ; Environmetal Bioethics ; Environmental Law ; Ethics ; Gaia Hypothesis ; and Human Impacts .] Bibliography Attfield, R. The Ethics of Environmental Concern . Oxford: Blackwell, 1983. Brown, P. G. , and D. MacLean , eds. Energy and the Future . Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1983. Howarth, R. B. “ Sustainability under Uncertainty: A Deontological Approach. ”...

Hume, David

Hume, David   Reference library

Simon Blackburn

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,145 words

...of those who ‘belong to the party of mankind’. Hume is clear that this is an achievement of civilization rather than the gift of an Aristotelian telos or naturally benevolent human nature. The resulting moral system is nearer to what is now called ‘virtue ethics’ than utilitarianism or its Kantian rivals. The primary foci of moral appraisal, for Hume, are the character traits manifested in action, according to whether they are ‘useful or agreeable to ourselves or others’. The system is funded by the same elements as utilitarianism—the pleasures and pains...

History of Spanish Psychology, 1800–2000

History of Spanish Psychology, 1800–2000   Reference library

Javier Bandrés

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
18,054 words

...Heidelberg, he studied with Bartsch, Wundt, and Kuno Fischer, whom he always considered his mentor. Del Perojo understood that Wundt’s neo-Kantianism was the instrument capable of overcoming the outdated idealistic metaphysics of the Krausism he had studied in Madrid. Back in Spain, he founded the journal Revista Contemporánea in 1875 , which, together with Revista Europea , became the vehicle for Wundtian neo-Kantianism and positivism in Spain. Helped by young intellectuals like Manuel de la Revilla and another Spanish author born in Cuba, Rafael Montoro,...

Policy Analysis

Policy Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...must always be limited by strict rules that take precedence over any benefit-cost calculation. For example, we should not allow other humans to be enslaved or murdered, no matter what a benefit-cost calculation might indicate. In considering policy to address global change, the Kantian approach suggests that we need to develop appropriate rules and apply BCA or cost-effectiveness analysis only within the constraints of the rules. Such rules might take the form of minimum standards for the protection of habitat or endangered species or maximum amounts of climate...

The Genetic Epistemology of Jean Piaget

The Genetic Epistemology of Jean Piaget   Reference library

Jeremy Trevelyan Burman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
24,759 words

...of philosophical assumptions by experimental means. At this time, specifically, the goal was the experimental engagement with the first of what Quine ( 1951 ) had recently called “the two dogmas of empiricism.” (Namely, they were decomposing and complexifying the Kantian distinction between truths grounded in meanings, or the analytical a priori, and truths grounded in facts, the synthetic a posteriori; see also Piaget, 1971 , pp. 31–32.) In a follow-up letter, Piaget then shared a copy of Quine’s comments about Volume IV. This is marked ...

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators

Ethics for Climate Change Communicators   Reference library

Michael Lamb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... American Philosophical Quarterly , 8 (3), 257–265. Baron, M. W. (1997). Kantian ethics. In M. W. Baron , P. Pettit , & M. Slote (Eds.), Three methods of ethics (pp. 3–91). Oxford: Blackwell. Bradley, B. (2005). Virtue consequentialism. Utilitas , 17 (2), 282–298. Brennan, A. , & Lo, Y.-S. (2015, Winter). Environmental ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy . Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/ethics-environmental/ . Bucar, E. (2015). Islam and the cultivation of character: Ibn...

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