Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 35 entries  for:

  • All: Kantian ethics x
clear all

View:

Overview

Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

feminism

feminism  

The approach to social life, philosophy, and ethics that commits itself to correcting biases leading to the subordination of women or the disparagement of women's particular experience and of the ...
deontological ethics

deontological ethics   Reference library

Robert Song and Jennifer Riley

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64 words

...ethics (from Gk δέον ‎ , ‘duty, obligation’) The collective term for normative ethical theories which emphasize the obligatory nature of actions, regardless of their consequences, by contrast with utilitarianism or consequentialism. Varieties of deontology include many divine command theories, rights-based theories, Kantian ethics , and the ethics of prima facie duties. Robert Song and Jennifer Riley S. Darwall (ed.), Deontology (Oxford,...

Categorical imperative

Categorical imperative   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
33 words

...imperative . In Kantian ethics, the universal moral law, by which all rational beings are by duty constrained to act. The term was introduced in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals ( 1785...

care ethics

care ethics   Reference library

Crina Gschwandtner

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
188 words

...ethics A feminist approach to ethical theory. In response to Utilitarian and deontological (i.e. Kantian) approaches that operate on the assumptions that moral action must be rational, universal, abstract, and oriented toward justice (also against Freud’s and Kohlberg’s accounts of moral development that see abstract moral reasoning as a higher stage), care ethicists argue that emotion, intuitive reasoning, and concrete care for others play an important role in moral reasoning (esp. for women) and that abstract/universal judgement is not necessarily...

ADLER, FELIX

ADLER, FELIX   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
379 words

...to 1873. Under the impact of historicism, evolution, Bible criticism, and Neo-Kantianism, he broke intellectually with theism and Judaism. He formulated a belief in moral law independent of a personal deity, which he insisted had to find expression in activist social reform. Following a brief tenure at Cornell University from 1873 to 1876, Adler established the New York Society for Ethical Culture in 1876. Under his leadership and fired by his commitment to applied social ethics, the society pioneered such ventures as a free kindergarten, a free district...

COHEN, HERMANN

COHEN, HERMANN   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
536 words

...German philosopher and founder of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. Prominently associated with Reform Judaism, Cohen sought to demonstrate the fundamental compatibility of the Reform conception of Jewish faith with Kant’s ethical idealism. Interpreting the latter’s teachings in a novel fashion, he understood ethics as summoning society to the task of forging the future in accordance with rationally determined moral principles of justice and peace. This understanding of ethics, he held, was anticipated by biblical monotheism, especially as...

Gadamer, Hans Georg

Gadamer, Hans Georg (1900–2002)   Reference library

Crina Gschwandtner

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
497 words

...for the distinctive truth of the Geisteswissenschaften (humanities). Part I of the book focuses on aesthetics, II on history, and III on language. He shows how the creation and contemplation of art has become increasingly subjectivized, relativized, and privatized (e.g. the Kantian and Romantic ‘genius’), then argues for a conception of art as ‘play’ or performance in which we are involved in a ‘back-and-forth’ with the work of art, which becomes an event of truth. The Enlightenment taught us a ‘prejudice against prejudice’, yet some measures of...

MacKinnon, Donald MacKenzie

MacKinnon, Donald MacKenzie (1913–94)   Reference library

Andrew Louth

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
514 words

...chair of moral philosophy at Aberdeen University, where he remained until 1960, when he became the Norris-Hulse professor of divinity at Cambridge until his retirement in 1978. He was to his marrow a philosopher, deeply read in Plato and Aristotle , but also engaged in Kantian moral philosophy. An Anglo-Catholic, he was orthodox in his theology, alive to its radical moral and political implications. A socialist by conviction—a member of the Labour Party—he was early on committed to the hopes raised by W. Temple during the Second World War of a...

GOD, PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF

GOD, PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
633 words

...Jewish thinkers, too, have adapted their discourse. Reform theologian Kaufmann Kohler held that for the religious consciousness God was not demonstrated by argument but was a fact of inner and outer experience. For Hermann Cohen , God was, in Kantian style, a postulate of reason linking together logic and ethics. Franz Rosenzweig saw God as one of three aspects of reality (the other two being the human person and the world) that could not be reduced. God for him was the affirmation of being. For Martin Buber , God was the ultimate “thou,” upon which all...

Secular Bioethics in Muslim
          Countries

Secular Bioethics in Muslim Countries   Reference library

Anke Iman Bouzenita

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,581 words

... Secular and Islamic Bioethics Secular bioethics has hosted a variety of approaches. Deontological approaches, such as the Kantian approach in ethics, apply strict moral rules to concrete Utilitarian approaches, built on the core principles of consequence, utility, hedonism, and universality, are very prominent in secular bioethics ( Gordon, 2018 ). The principlism...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804)   Reference library

Douglas Hedley

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,528 words

...in moral perception he found the practice of prayer increasingly unprofitable. Miracles , if they ever happened, could have no religious significance. Kant made no attempt to round off his beliefs into a system. This task was soon undertaken by others, who constructed on a Kantian basis a series of grandly conceived systems. Fichte , Schelling , and Hegel ( absolute idealism ) were all directly inspired by and looked back to Kant. In the latter part of the 19th cent. there arose in Germany a widespread and diversified philosophical movement seeking...

GOD

GOD   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,928 words

...Mendelssohn summed up his view in his famous phrase: “Judaism is not a revealed religion, but a revealed law.” The rise of Kantianism accentuated the division between theoretical and practical reason. The proofs that Kant adduced to destroy rational theology led to the idea that religion was dependent on ethics and fundamentally an expression of practical reason. Hermann Cohen produced the most impressive synthesis between Kantianism and Judaism. To him the idea of God is indispensable both to theoretical and to practical reason. It establishes the...

Character Ethics

Character Ethics   Reference library

Elna Mouton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,485 words

...of twentieth century societies and that individuals no longer have the collective power to influence the morality of society. Particularly during the aftermath of World War I, Max Weber problematized the Kantian ethics based on personal conviction. Reflecting on the kind of people Europe needed to build a new society after the war, Weber pled for an ethics of responsibility that would ask about the consequences of people’s decisions and actions. For him, this means listening to others, respecting their opinion, enquiring with them about the best possible...

Deontology

Deontology   Reference library

Christoph Hübenthal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,393 words

...improvement of the Kantian type of deontology. However, Darwall goes further than Kant in that he makes plausible that the other—and through the other the entire moral community—legitimately can summon the moral subject to determine his or her will in an autonomous way, so that the dignity of the moral subject as well as the dignity of the entire moral community is appropriately recognized. Deontology, Ethics, and the Bible. Against the background of what has been said so far, it should be clear that a deontological approach to biblical ethics cannot consist in...

Values

Values   Reference library

Paul van Tongeren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,504 words

...in a positive sense. As inciting to act in a certain way and opening up possibilities for action through their attractive force, values must be distinguished from norms, which are mainly obliging, prohibiting, or restricting. Scheler opposes his “material value-ethics” to the “formalism” of Kantian moral philosophy. As ideal points of orientation, values are to be distinguished from virtues, which are established dispositions to act in a certain way. The value of forgiveness can, for example, be distinguished from the virtuous attitude of forgiving or...

Metaethics

Metaethics   Reference library

Mark Douglas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,517 words

...of property, defense of others whose rights are being violated) are appropriate when rights are not being respected. It is in the context of normative ethics that we see the promotion of ethical theories like utilitarianism, virtue theory, an ethic of care, or deontology. This last sentence begins to reveal just how much metaethics and normative ethics begin to blur into each other. Utilitarians and Kantian deontologists, for example, not only make normative claims about behavior but often do so on the basis of metaethical considerations that shape and are...

Theories of Ethics

Theories of Ethics   Reference library

Allen Verhey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,653 words

...A third formulation posits a “kingdom of ends” in which all people are equally required to treat one another as autonomous. Kant emphasizes both the autonomy of ethics, its independence from self-interest, inclinations, and theology, and the autonomy of moral agents, the freedom that demands the respect of every other moral agent. The “discourse ethics” of Jürgen Habermas stands in the Kantian tradition, but it substitutes the procedures of moral argumentation for the categorical imperative, shifting the justification for obligation from the solitary...

Philosophy of Nature

Philosophy of Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,413 words

...It was Immanuel Kant ( 1724–1804 ) who worked out the first comprehensive critical theory of nature, which comprised both a mechanistic theory of science and a complementary theory of the organic (i.e., the biological aspect of nature). Natur-philosophie in the strict Kantian sense is characterized by a reduction of visible or measurable forces to a small set of general prior forces. Forces that transcend the scope of pure reason are to be excluded from philosophy. This assumption was harshly refuted by philosophers of the early nineteenth century. A...

Cobb, John B., Jr.

Cobb, John B., Jr. (1925)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,319 words

...of the Grawemeyer Award of Ideas Improving World Order in 1992 . As founding co-director of the Center for Process Studies, Cobb is a leading proponent of process theology and its implications for ecological and economic ethics. John Cobb's early work in process theology (from 1959–1969 ) gave little consideration to ecological ethics. This changed when he underwent a “conversion” in 1969 , after his son introduced him to the drastic proportions of the ecological crisis. In 1972 , Cobb published Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology where he began to...

Uti/Frui Distinction

Uti/Frui Distinction   Reference library

Kimberly Georgedes and Elizabeth Sweeny Block

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,713 words

...toward God, as are all legitimate acts of use, including love of neighbour. Holte notes that in Ciceronian Latin, uti is used for friendly relations between human beings, and it is wrong for moderns to react to Aug.'s designation in Kantian terms, for Aug.'s ‘use’ of neighbour was not meant as a means to an end, per se, but rather included in one's love for God, and placed in proper relation to God (277). O’Donovan (1982), while agreeing that Holte has freed Aug.'s ...

View: