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Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

Kantian ethics

Kantian ethics   Reference library

R. S. Downie

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
626 words

...distinguished recent exponent has been John Rawls , who accepts the core Kantian idea of mutually respecting autonomous rational wills, but adds to it ideas of his own to constitute the basis of his theory of justice. It is a nice point in many given cases when a theory is simply influenced by Kantian ethics, as distinct from being an example of Kantian ethics. An Existentialist such as Jean-Paul Sartre would not be happy with the idea that he was offering a version of Kantian ethics, but there is no doubt that he is greatly influenced by Kant. In Sartre (as...

autonomy in applied ethics

autonomy in applied ethics  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The concept of personal autonomy, used in a broad sense which goes beyond its Kantian origins, has been much invoked in recent writing on issues in applied ethics. It has ...
Christine Korsgaard

Christine Korsgaard  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1952– ).American philosopher, Professor at Harvard. Korsgaard is one of the leading interpreters of Kant's moral philosophy and exponents of contemporary Kantian ethics. In her book The Sources of ...
neo-Kantianism

neo-Kantianism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A general term for any doctrine in metaphysics or ethics owing its inspiration to Kant, but more particularly a term for various philosophical trends of this kind prominent in Germany between 1870 ...
problems of the philosophy of education

problems of the philosophy of education  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
An area where philosophical understanding is applied to the illumination of issues in education—where this notion covers upbringing within the family as well as learning in schools and other ...
choice

choice  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The philosophical crux is whether choice is a process in which different desires, pressures, and attitudes fight it out and eventually result in one decision and action, or whether in addition there ...
modern Greek philosophy

modern Greek philosophy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
What point of origin one selects for modern Greek philosophy is to a certain extent an arbitrary matter. For, on the one hand, intellectual phenomena never fall neatly into line ...
moral particularism

moral particularism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The view owing its ancestry to Aristotle, and defended by the contemporary British philosopher Jonathan Dancy, that in deciding the rights and wrongs of action general principles are of little value: ...
ethics (Hooker to Ayer)

ethics (Hooker to Ayer)  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
It is common to think of ‘the British moralists’ as a clearly defined group of moral philosophers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Sir L. A. Selby-Bigge's two-volume anthology with ...
Bernard Arthur Owen Williams

Bernard Arthur Owen Williams  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1929–2003)English philosopher. Born in Essex, Williams was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and held Fellowships at All Souls and New College. He was professor of philosophy at Cambridge from ...
Anthony Quinton

Anthony Quinton  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1925–2010).British philosopher, based in Oxford and member of the House of Lords, who wrote on political philosophy, ethics and metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, and a variety of historical ...
Richard Mervyn Hare

Richard Mervyn Hare  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1919–2002)R. M. Hare was born in Backwell, Somerset on 21 March 1919 and died in Ewelme, Oxfordshire on 29 January 2002. He married Catherine Verney in 1947, and they ...
duty

duty  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
That which one must do, or that which can be required of one. The term carries implications of that which is owed (due) to other people, or perhaps to oneself. Universal duties would be owed to ...
relativism

relativism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, or historical context, and are not absolute.
feminism

feminism  

The approach to social life, philosophy, and ethics that commits itself to correcting biases leading to the subordination of women or the disparagement of women's particular experience and of the ...
Kantianism

Kantianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
75 words

... In ethics, Kantianism is an approach to moral theorizing that borrows substantially from Kant’s thinking. While such approaches nearly invariably endorse some form of deontology , they can borrow, emphasize, and develop different aspects of Kant’s work. Some Kantians, for example, stress the importance of autonomy to moral theorizing; others emphasize the idea of respect for persons; still others underscore the importance of formal constraints on moral decision making, such as the categorical...

moral law

moral law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
100 words

...law Some theories of ethics see the subject in terms of a number of laws (as in the Ten Commandments). The status of these laws may be that they are the edicts of a divine lawmaker, or that they are truths of reason, knowable a priori . Other approaches to ethics (e.g. eudaimonism , situation ethics , virtue ethics ) eschew general principles as much as possible, regarding them as at best rules-of-thumb, frequently disguising the great complexity of practical reasoning. For the Kantian notion of the moral law, see categorical imperative . See...

Scheler, Max Ferdinand

Scheler, Max Ferdinand (1874–1928)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
115 words

...Munich and studied in Jena, returning to learn about the phenomenology of Husserl in 1907 . In 1913 he wrote his Formalism in Ethics and Non-formal Ethics of Values , criticizing Kantian ethics for excessive formalism, and comparing moral perception to perception of secondary qualities . His philosophy developed in terms of the phenomenology of perception of non-Platonic essences, held together by a hierarchical, Kantian architecture. Among others he impressed Heidegger and Ortega y Gasset , and his second wife Märit Furtwängler was the sister of...

Cohen, Hermann

Cohen, Hermann   Reference library

Lenn E. Goodman

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
244 words

...of Kantian philosophy. Son of a cantor and son-in-law of the liturgical composer Lewandowski , Cohen studied at Jewish and secular institutions, winning his Marburg chair after brilliantly defending Kant's a priori time and space. He went on to argue that all principles of knowledge are a priori : all objects are mental constructs; Kantian things-in-themselves , untenable. Newtonian physics demonstrates the reality of science and so the possibility of a priori judgements. But science progresses. It is never complete. Supplementing Kant's ethics with...

Brunschvicg, Léon

Brunschvicg, Léon   Reference library

Stephen Priest

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
131 words

...Léon ( 1869–1944 ). French idealist philosopher who provides a sustained neo-Hegelian answer to the Kantian question: How is knowledge possible? Rejecting the Kantian project of a transcendental deduction of the categories, Brunschvicg construes philosophy as the historical reflection of consciousness on consciousness. This reveals ‘the progress of consciousness’ ( le progrès de la conscience ) typified by the emergence of the natural sciences, the findings of which, Brunschvicg argues, are consistent with his own idealism. Brunschvicg is also...

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