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Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

VALUE

VALUE   Reference library

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... see VIRTÙ (especially for the Greek aretê [ ἀϱετή ‎], L. virtus , It. virtù ). See also VIRTUE . On ethics as a system of values more generally, see DUTY , MORALS . II. Value and Verity (Truth) The central question is the articulation among “true,” “valid,” and “valuable,” with the notion of “truth-value”: see TRUTH , and PROPOSITION ; see also CROYANCE [ BELIEF , DOXA , GLAUBE ] . On the separation of the spheres of ethics and knowledge, in particular, see WERT , IV . III. Value and Meaning On the relation between the meaning and...

FACT

FACT   Reference library

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...at on the basis of its idiomatic expressions— see MATTER OF FACT , cf. ENGLISH ; and German terminology, which is built up in translation of and in counterpoint to English empiricism: see TATSACHE . TATSACHE , Box 1 , examines the study of existential reinvestment of the Kantian Faktum , by way of Kierkegaard’s Danish. More generally, on the objective status of facts, see APPEARANCE , PHÉNOMÈNE , [ ERSCHEINUNG , GEGENSTAND , OBJECT , REALITY , RES ], THING . On the language to which it gives rise, see FALSE , FICTION [ ERZÄHLEN , HISTORY ],...

PRUDENTIAL

PRUDENTIAL   Reference library

Catherine Audard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... prudentia , from Aristotle and Cicero to Kant and Sidgwick, tried to understand it. These dilemmas are still being debated by writers who, even when they draw on both traditions, try, like James Griffin, to reevaluate the relations between prudential virtues and ethics or to derive all of ethics from prudential reason, like David Gauthier or John Rawls in his early work. I. From the Reason for Acting to Self-Interest and Anticipation Philosophers used to understand the notion of prudence in three dimensions. In the first place, it was understood as...

MORALS

MORALS   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Marc Crépon, and François Prost

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...ethics, whose aim is to propose to employees a system of values that can help boost performance; and bioethics, and its various offshoots. His book is symptomatic of an interplay between ethics and morals, and in effect expresses a nostalgia for a prescriptive and universal morality, Kantian in nature ( die Moralität ), that motivates his critique of these different local ethics: La morale [morality] is a categorical imperative: ethics is a hypothetical imperative. This distinction is a telling one. Either the action is determined by an unconditional...

GLÜCK

GLÜCK (GERMAN)   Reference library

Christian Helmreich

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...a stable and spiritualized happiness, and Glück a temporally more limited happiness—good fortune. However, the Hegelian passage also refers to the whole of pre-Kantian thinking on Glückseligkeit , very visible especially in popular philosophy of the eighteenth century, and Aristotelian and Leibniz-Wolffian in inspiration (see, for example, the translation of the Nicomachean Ethics by Christian Garve , one of the protagonists of popular philosophy). The translation of Glückseligkeit by “happiness” in the Hegelian text would enable us to emphasize...

ACT

ACT   Reference library

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... [ личность ‎]; see RUSSIAN ), and is characterized by responsibility and commitment; see POSTUPOK . Finally, the Fichtean neologism Tathandlung , which is irreducible to an Akt , beyond the simple paradigms of tun , handeln , and wirken (do, act, work), and beyond the Kantian Faktum (fact), reduplicates the posing of an act/fact by the achievement of what is posed, in accord with the equation I = I ( see TATSACHE ) and opens the way to pragmatics. III. Pragmatics: Speaking and Acting 1. Contemporary developments, in particular, in analytical...

FAIR

FAIR   Reference library

Catherine Audard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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.... Nicomachean Ethics . In The Complete Works of Aristotle , vol. 2, edited by J. Barnes . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press / Bollingen, 1984. Barry, Brian . Theories of Justice . London: Harvester, 1989. Hume, David . A Treatise on Human Nature . Edited by L. A. Selby-Bigge . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. First published 1739–40. Rawls, John . “Justice as Fairness.” Philosophical Review 67 (1958): 164–94. Rawls, John . A Theory of Justice . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971. Sidgwick, Henry . The Methods of Ethics . 6th ed....

UTILITY

UTILITY   Reference library

Catherine Audard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...to the desired end. Like Kantian morality, as a moral principle, it relies on a principle of impartiality. The happiness to be maximized is the happiness of all, with each and all treated in equal manner: The good of a specific individual, whoever he may be, has no more importance, from the point of view of the universe, if I can put it that way, than the good of any other individual, unless there are some special reasons to think that a greater Good is to be attained in one case rather than another. (Sidgwick, The Method of Ethics , bk. 3, chap. 13)...

PRAXIS

PRAXIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...form or structure, and so on. It refers, then, either to an Aristotelian version ( Nichomachean Ethics ) that opposes it to poiêsis [ ποίησις ‎] and relates it to an ethics and a politics of “prudence” ( phronêsis [ φϱόνησις ‎]), or to a Marxist version ( Theses on Feuerbach ) that identifies it with the effort to transform the existing world rooted in labor and class struggle ( umwälzende or revolutionäre Praxis ). Between these two poles there is a Kantian version of the practical element of action ( das Praktische ) and the “primacy of practical...

SOLLEN

SOLLEN (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Max Scheler and the Material Ethics of Values In his “Material Ethic of Values,” Scheler rejects the idea that value judgments would express “instead of a bond of being a bond of duty-to-be…or that, more generally, every value judgment must necessarily be based on the lived experience of a ‘duty-to-do’ ( Sollen ), whatever it be. In point of fact, the moral meaning of propositions such as ‘this image is beautiful’ or ‘that man is good’ is not at all that this image or that man ought ( sollen ) to be something” ( Formalism in Ethics ). Otherwise put, value...

GERMAN

GERMAN   Reference library

Jean-Pierre Lefebvre

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... 1786 , lexicalization had begun. Carl Christian Ehrhart Schmid had undertaken to redistribute the Kantian system alphabetically by listing in order the meanings of technical expressions. Kant himself, moreover, did not hesitate to engage in operations of self-lexicalization and definition for which he often provided the Latin equivalent, an attitude virtually nonexistent in Hegel, who was fundamentally hostile to specialized onomastics. Not only did Kantian discourse translate rather well, but it was good for certain philosophical temperaments: Kant’s...

NEIGHBOR

NEIGHBOR   Reference library

Kenneth Reinhard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...which is always “not yet” and ever unfolding “from one neighbor to the next neighbor.” Rosenzweig’s ideas on the neighbor respond to those of his teacher, Hermann Cohen , one of the founders of the Marburg School of neo-Kantianism. In Religion of Reason ( 1919 ), Cohen tried to reconcile Jewish legalism with Kantian ethics. Cohen had already vigorously defended the universalism of the Jewish account of the neighbor in 1888 , when he testified in a defamation suit against an anti-Semitic school teacher who had claimed that Judaism authorizes...

MENSCHHEIT

MENSCHHEIT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc Crépon and Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...between the ideal and the real, between the fieri and the factum ; he knows that it is not a matter of a promised effective reality, but of a tendency, of an asymptote. Unified humanity is merely an ideal: monotheistic messianism is its historical expression, and Kantian ethics and cosmopolitanism are its rational formulation. The feeling of humanity—Cohen makes no distinction between Humanität and Menschlichkeit —is an essential virtue since it is thanks to this virtue that humankind ( Menschentum , which is merely Menschengeschlecht as far as...

ES GIBT

ES GIBT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...participle of the verb geben (to give) in favor of an extension of the sphere of intuition and of the shift from a receptive intuition to a “giving” intuition” ( gebende Anschauung , in Idées directrices pour une phénoménologie Husserliana , vol. 2). Would these variations, Kantian or Husserlian, have seen the light of day if they had not been stimulated by the familiar es gibt of everyday conversation? An emphatic use of es gibt , in fact, begins to appear in Husserl: “es gibt also…Bedeutungen [There are meanings]” ( Recherches logiques , II, §36)....

VIRTÙ

VIRTÙ (ITALIAN)   Reference library

Alessandro Fontana

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...as in the Marquis de Sade, for the virtuous act must be linked to the common good, to the security of the State, to patriotic purpose ( The Prince , chap. 26). This reference to the public sphere locates Machiavellian virtue in a sort of conditional generality, equidistant from Kantian rigorism (which addresses the subject confronting the universality of law) and Sadean utilitarianism (which only concerns an individual through his particular interests). All of these parameters serve to define what one could call Machiavelli’s “system,” but it is a system that...

WERT

WERT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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.... Nietzsche Briefwechsel, Kritische Gesamtausgabe . Berlin: De Gruyter, 1975–. Nietzsche, Friedrich . Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe . Berlin: De Gruyter, 1967. Rickert, Heinrich . Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis . Tübingen: Mohr, 1927. Scheler, Max . Formalism in Ethics and Non-Formal Ethics of Values: A New Attempt toward the Foundation of an Ethical Personalism . Translated by Manfred S. Frings and Roger L. Funk . 5th rev. ed. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1973. Schmitt, Carl . “Die Tyrannei der Werte.” In Säkularisation und Utopie ....

AESTHETICS

AESTHETICS   Reference library

Marc Jimenez

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...from the Kantian double meaning of “aesthetic,” meaning both a study of a priori forms of perception and a critique of taste, the study of the feelings of pleasure and pain related to the faculty of judgment, whose domain of application is, according to Kant, art. Nevertheless, we know the paramount importance he gives to nature to the detriment of art in general and fine arts in particular. Similarly, the Hegelian notion of “aesthetics,” a term imposed by use and not fully accepted, distances itself from the sense given to it by the Kantian and...

RUSSIAN

RUSSIAN   Reference library

Charles Malamoud and Valentin Omelyantchik

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...was first applied in Russian philosophy by Vladimir Solovyov ( 1853–1900 ), in his fundamental work Opravdanie dobra ( 1897 ). The standard French translation of this title is La Justification du bien . Solovyov’s starting point is the heritage of the dualism of Kantian ethics, namely the opposition between the motives of human action and the moral law, between the real world and the world of duty. Human action thus has two registers, that of the actual and empirical, and that of the normative. In this double register how is the distribution...

INTELLECT

INTELLECT (FRENCH)   Reference library

Emmanuel Faye

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... Œuvres philosophiques , he translated as nous comprenons (we understand) the verb intelligimus used by the philosopher in relation to our knowledge of God’s perfections ( see Œuvres philosophiques , 3:766). What is more, in his concern to promote the image of a pre-Kantian Descartes, he spoke in 1950 of an “unknowable transcendence” and of a “metaphysics of an inaccessible being” in relation to the God of the Meditations ( La Découverte métaphysique de l’homme chez Descartes , 113 [p. 109 in 1987 ed.]). More recently, Jean-Luc Marion has...

REALITY

REALITY   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...perfect than that which contains only the objective perfection of any accident whatever; Opera , 1:153.29–154.2). Thus Spinoza, like Descartes, and following Duns Scotus, also explains realitas as entitas (ibid., 1:154.27–31), and even in the Ethics, realitas is still associated with perfectio ( Ethics , in Opera , vol. 2, def. 6). For Leibniz as well, the ancient meaning of realitas , in conformity with the Scotist tradition in the broad sense, remains guiding and determining: reality does not primarily characterize the worldly object exterior to...

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