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Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

feminism

feminism  

The approach to social life, philosophy, and ethics that commits itself to correcting biases leading to the subordination of women or the disparagement of women's particular experience and of the ...
Anscombe, Elizabeth

Anscombe, Elizabeth   Reference library

Diana Tietjens Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,231 words

...is intentional. Intention concludes with a trenchant critical commentary on Aristotle's cryptic account of practical reasoning. “Modern Moral Philosophy” ( Philosophy 33, no. 124 [ January 1958 ]) is Anscombe's principal contribution to ethics. Once again, Aristotle is her touchstone. This essay rejects the Kantian and Utilitarian focus on duty and obligation together with their project of codifying morality in definitive standards of right and wrong. It argues that philosophers ought to be asking how to live well and to that end ought to be centering on...

Foucault, Michel

Foucault, Michel (1926–1984)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,426 words

...Precisely because Foucault founded his philosophy on an idea of freedom, he was a remarkably consistent Kantian—in some respects, more consistent than Kant himself. “Only in the inherently unknowable [realm of freedom] could there be a Kantian Foundations for a Metaphysics of Ethics ,” Hacking has justly remarked. “‘Unknowable’ is meant literally…. It means that there is nothing to be said about freedom, except that within its space we construct our ethics and our lives. Those who criticize Foucault for not giving us a place to stand might start their critique...

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von

Hippel, Theodor Gottlieb von (1741–1796)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
700 words

...and poverty relief, and he contributed his expertise to the commission that drafted Prussia's new legal code, the Allgemeines Landrecht ( 1794 ). In all his endeavors, Hippel was animated by a freethinking but practical form of early liberalism. Equally influenced by Kantian ethics, religious obligation, and legal-administrative sophistication, Hippel believed that the main task of Enlightenment thinkers like himself was to reform government according to principles of natural law. These principles would guarantee the indeterminate development of civil...

Cassirer, Ernst

Cassirer, Ernst (1874–1945)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,760 words

...remains his most widely read and debated work. Life and Thought until 1932 Cassirer was born in the German city of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) to a Jewish family. At the University of Marburg, he worked closely with Hermann Cohen ( 1842–1918 ), a leading neo-Kantian philosopher. The neo-Kantians believed that Immanuel Kant ( 1724–1804 ) had decisively transformed philosophy by destroying metaphysics and grounding philosophy in epistemology. That is, philosophy should focus not on the essence of things but on the conceptual structures that the mind...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Kelley L. Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,402 words
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...looks like various fragments of Kant's theory. German Idealists such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( 1762–1814 ), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ( 1775–1854 ), and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770–1831 ) dispensed with things in themselves, as did the later neo-Kantians such as Wilhelm Windelband ( 1848–1915 ). Another modern tendency has been to dismiss objective morality, as was done by Friedrich Nietzsche ( 1844–1900 ) and such existentialists as Jean-Paul Sartre ( 1905–1980 ) and Martin Heidegger ( 1889–1976 ). That Sartre ended up...

Happiness

Happiness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,024 words

...Nussbaum, Martha C. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics . Princeton, N.J., 1994. A readable and very engaging guide to ancient eudaimonism. Pope, Alexander . Poetry and Prose . Edited by Aubrey Williams . Boston, 1969. Potkay, Adam . The Passion for Happiness: Samuel Johnson and David Hume . Ithaca, N.Y., 2000. Situates key aspects of eighteenth-century moral philosophy in relation to Cicero's presentation of Hellenistic ethics. Røstvig, Maren-Sofie . The Happy Man: Studies in the Metamorphoses of a Classical Ideal, ...

Moral Philosophy

Moral Philosophy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
6,840 words

...it is better to discuss the various versions of the moral philosophy of the Enlightenment in their national and linguistic contexts rather than trying to superimpose categories on them—such as rationalism, intuitionism, sentimentalism, utilitarianism, naturalism, virtue, and Kantian ethics—that must be largely anachronistic. This article will concentrate on Great Britain, France, and Germany, the three most important centers of Enlightenment thought, beginning with an overview of the immediate prehistory of moral philosophy and concluding with a short...

Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism   Reference library

Luca Prono

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,143 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opposed Coleridge's view of the human mind as creative in favor of John Locke's theory of the mind as a passive receiver of impressions. But following Coleridge, they established correspondences between nature and spirit and the human mind that recognizes them. German post-Kantian philosophers such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling were also influential. The birth of transcendentalism was stimulated by a quarrel in the Unitarian churches of Boston, and transcendentalist texts often reveal a polemical edge. Though Unitarian ministers...

Justice, Theories of

Justice, Theories of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,528 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the correction of dealings between two parties, where an accident or an intentional injury has created an imbalance (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics , 5.2. 1130b30–1131a1). Aristotle argued that both kinds of justice could be seen as “a species of the proportionate” ( Nicomachean Ethics , 5.3.1131a29). He also introduced the idea of “legal justice,” which entails following the rules already promulgated ( Nicomachean Ethics , 5.1. 1129b12). Later writers have frequently referred to the application of justice to particular topics—applications that are sometime...

Haskalah

Haskalah   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,295 words

...Akten-Stuecke, die Reform der Juedischen Kolonien in den Preussischen Staaten betreffend , 1793 ). In a tract on the practice of early burial, Marcus Herz ( 1747–1803 ), a physician and popularizer of Kantian philosophy, pitted the claims of medicine against religion ( Ueber die fruehe Beerdigung der Juden , 1788 ). Saul Ascher ( 1767–1822 ) used Kantian categories to advocate a “positive reformation” that would turn Judaism into a religion of reason ( Leviathan, oder ueber Religion in Ruecksicht des Judenthums , 1792 ). Solomon Maimon ( 1753–1800 )...

Pufendorf, Samuel

Pufendorf, Samuel (1632–1694)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,264 words

...in German idealism. (This is particularly ironic in view of Pufendorf's own role in originating the history of moral philosophy as a genre.) There are at least two versions of this tale, and of Pufendorf's significance. J.B. Schneewind sees him as a pivotal figure on the way to Kantian autonomy, to which he indirectly contributed; this story follows Pufendorf's ideas through the British and French, as well as the German contexts. Another, mainly German account, detailed by Ian Hunter , regards him as the casualty of a revivified Christian metaphysics...

Staël, Germaine Necker de

Staël, Germaine Necker de (1766–1817)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,078 words

...enemies became active. She became more and more cosmopolitan in her friendships and ideas. Around 1801 , she began studying German philosophy; her years of exile would bring her into contact with Italian, German, and English thinkers and writers. She substituted Kantian transcendental ethics for the enlightened self-interest of the eighteenth century; faced with the tragedies of life, enlightened self-interest seemed insufficient. In 1803 , Bonaparte exiled her from Paris, an exile that lasted ten years, and in December, with Constant, she left for...

Netherlands

Netherlands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
5,809 words

...German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who had launched a “Copernican revolution” that was largely ignored by Dutch philosophers. Although it has been shown that by the early nineteenth century, Kinker had managed to rally quite a number of radical Freemasons behind his calls for a Kantian Aufklärung , Dutch philosophers became seriously interested in German Idealism only during the latter half of the nineteenth century. One should bear in mind, however, that until now research into the Dutch eighteenth century has been dominated by literary and cultural...

Reason

Reason   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,763 words

...not be used to infer a first cause or a creator of the universe. Its use is limited to the world of the senses, the natural world. In practical metaphysics, or the metaphysics of morals, Kant argued that reason can establish a moral law as the basis of a systematic ethics. He thus denied that ethics can or need be limited to considerations of mere pleasure, pain, and natural appetite. Rather, he argued that human beings are able to act from purely rational principles, independent of sensual inclination. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770–1831 ) criticized...

Epistemology

Epistemology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
8,809 words

...moral epistemology. This division was regularized, first by the German scientist Hermann Helmholtz and then by neo-Kantians such as Heinrich Rickert , into a distinction between the Geisteswissenschaften —literally “sciences of spirit,” but originally translated as “moral sciences” and now as “human sciences”—and the Naturwissenschaften , or natural sciences. Epistemology became a recognized subdiscipline of philosophy, alongside ethics and logic and distinct from the new experimental psychology. It replaced metaphysics as the main branch of...

Wilsonianism

Wilsonianism   Reference library

Trygve Throntveit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
15,791 words

...philosophy, specifically the “new psychology” introduced to Hopkins by G. Stanley Hall. Hall had studied at Harvard under William James, drawn to James’s search for an account of mental life more coherent with biological evolution than the dualistic schemes of the Cartesian and Kantian traditions, yet friendlier to free will than alternatives postulating a universe governed entirely by material laws, on the one hand, or an absolute mind on the other. 7 It was during Hall’s Harvard years ( 1876–1881 ) that James laid foundations for what he later popularized as...

Ethics

Ethics   Reference library

Alan C. Tjeltveit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
12,148 words

...) and the expulsion of ethics from psychology, some psychologists and ethicists began to endorse a closer relationship between psychological research and ethics. This took a variety of forms, from articulating ways in which psychology can legitimately inform ethics, to blurring the boundaries between psychology and ethics, to psychology being employed in ethics-inspired advocacy and activism, to exploring particular ways in which ethics can and cannot legitimately be employed in psychology. The view that science can inform ethics began to be espoused (...

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism

Residues of (Post-)Kantian Philosophy in Early Scientific Psychology and Hermann von Helmholtz’s Idealism   Reference library

Liesbet de Kock

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
11,444 words

...of the ways in which Helmholtz appropriated the Kantian a priori (and aspects of its further elaboration by J. G. Fichte) within his empirical theory of perception. The analysis offered is structured as follows: 1. After some introductory notes about the caveats to be taken into account in exploring Helmholtz’s relation to Kantian philosophy, Helmholtz’s Kantian interpretation of Johannes Müller’s Law of Specific Nerve Energies is discussed (“Helmholtz, Müller and the Dawn of Physiological Neo-Kantianism”); 2. Second, Helmholtz’s adoption of Kant’s a...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...worked with and against ideas pulled from New England unitarianism and German idealism, as well as ancient Greek philosophy, Asian religions, and, most especially, the new trends of Continental and British romanticism. The more social-reformist of them turned to the post-Kantian empiricism of Victor Cousin ( 1792–1867 ) and to the communitarian ideas of French socialist Charles Fourier ( 1772–1837 ) for his science of social perfection. The more spiritually restless of them, although critical of the pantheism and subjectivism they detected in German...

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