Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-20 of 72 entries  for:

  • All: Kantian ethics x
  • Art & Architecture x
clear all

View:

Overview

Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

feminism

feminism  

The approach to social life, philosophy, and ethics that commits itself to correcting biases leading to the subordination of women or the disparagement of women's particular experience and of the ...
Piper, Adrian

Piper, Adrian (20 Sept 1948)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
638 words

...of Heidelberg and earned a PhD in Philosophy from Harvard University in 1981 . She taught philosophy at Georgetown, Harvard, the University of Michigan, Stanford and the University of California, San Diego. Her principal publications have been in meta‐ethics, Kantian metaphysics and the history of ethics. These interests also influenced her art. In 1987 she became the first tenured African American woman professor in the field of philosophy at Wellesley College and, through numerous scholarly books and articles, began to present her ideas through...

Bakhtin, Mikhail Mikhailovich

Bakhtin, Mikhail Mikhailovich (1895–1975)   Reference library

Deborah J. Haynes

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,973 words

...other ideas related to Kantian philosophy and aesthetics. Bakhtin’s circle included writers such as Valentin N. Voloshinov ( Marxism and the Philosophy of Language and Freudianism: A Critical Sketch ) and Pavel N. Medvedev ( The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship ), whose books were earlier attributed to Bakhtin, but this essay only addresses works that are firmly established as having been written by him. Bakhtin’s essays and books are significant for aesthetics in two primary ways: first, in relation to Kantian and neo-Kantian aesthetic theories with...

Lyotard, Jean-François

Lyotard, Jean-François (1925–1998)   Reference library

James Williams

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,937 words

...to its publication. Yet, in later years the book has been reconsidered by commentators ( Carroll, 1987 ; Bennington, 1988 ) and, despite its avowed antitheoretical stance, the book can be seen as consistent not only with Lyotard’s early work but also with his later, more Kantian, philosophy. Lyotard’s libidinal philosophy is one of the prime examples of post-1968 iconoclastic and liberating French philosophy. Its energy and revolutionary violence leave little space, however, for precise values and judgments. This need for judgment influences a marked turn...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel   Reference library

Paul Guyer, Salim Kemal, Kenneth R. Westphal, Theodore A. Gracyk, Günter Zöller, Mark A. Cheetham, Rudolf A. Makkreel, Jane Kneller, and Thierry de Duve

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
37,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...orientation of nineteenth-century aesthetics comes from the movement of neo-Kantianism in German academic philosophy. Yet, while the neo-Kantians dominated professional philosophy late in the nineteenth and early in the twentieth century, they exercised little influence on contemporary aesthetic debates and theories of art. The neo-Kantians agreed with psychological Kantianism on the foundational role of the subject in the constitution of the world and its objects. But on the neo-Kantian view, the subject in question is not some concrete, empirically existing...

Fechner, Gustav Theodor

Fechner, Gustav Theodor (1801–1887)   Reference library

Jay Hetrick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,141 words

...or judgment. Although here he might appear to naively disregard Kant by adopting Christian Wolff’s relation of pleasure to beauty, Fechner should perhaps be understood as the grandfather of the tradition of radical or transcendental empiricism, which did in fact take the Kantian intervention into consideration. In this tradition, William James, Henri Bergson, and Gilles Deleuze have all critically but constructively utilized Fechner’s insights in order to develop their own ideas on aesthetics ( Hetrick, 2011 ). Finally, Fechner’s psychophysical...

Solger, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand

Solger, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand (1780–1819)   Reference library

Wolfhart Henckmann

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,442 words

...tragedies of Sophocles (2 vols., 1808 ). But when he listened to Schelling’s lectures on the philosophy of absolute identity at the University of Jena (1801/2) and to Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre in Berlin (1804/5), he became “married to philosophy” in its most modern, post-Kantian form, which had a great influence on the romantic movement, centered around August Wilhelm and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel’s journal Athenäum ( 1798–1800 ). While at the University of Halle, Solger initiated a literary club, called “Freitag,” whose members translated and...

Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von

Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von (1759–1805)   Reference library

Frederick Beiser

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,546 words

...His aesthetics is scarcely comprehensible without some understanding of Kant’s doctrines, because Schiller began from the same problems, adopted the same vocabulary, and applied the same ideas to new fields. Nevertheless, it is a mistake to consider Schiller a Kantian or to measure his work only in Kantian terms, for Schiller criticized Kant as much as he borrowed from him. Precisely how and why Schiller differs from Kant is a complex and controversial issue, which this essay will attempt to unravel. Although Kant was the central figure in the development of...

Novalis

Novalis (1772–1801)   Reference library

John Neubauer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,569 words

...definition of mathematical knowledge as a construction of nonempirical intuitions for concepts that Kant gave in the Critique of Pure Reason (2d ed., section 742). Novalis responded to this notion of mathematical construction with a longer commentary on Friedrich Murhard’s Kantian System der allgemeinen Grössenlehre ( 1798 ), in which he suggests (going beyond Kant) that the method is not unique to mathematics. One should be able to construct intuitions for all kinds of concepts, to introduce the mathematical Plastisirungsmethode into all the sciences...

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund   Reference library

Lambert Zuidervaart, Christoph Menke, Josef Früchtl, Stephen Hinton, and Tom Huhn

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,252 words

...universal, it thereby fails to serve as a dynamic site of promise or reconciliation. In Kantian beauty, for Adorno, there is no productive tension, slippage, or dialectic. These qualities instead reside in Kant’s theory of beauty. It is as if Kantian natural beauty too readily avoids what Adorno considers art’s inescapable telos: “Since time immemorial art has sought to rescue the particular; advancing particularity was immanent to it.” So too, for Adorno, the Kantian redemption and promotion of the particular object (but so too surreptitiously of the...

Environmental Aesthetics

Environmental Aesthetics   Reference library

Arnold Berleant and Emily S. Brady

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,096 words
Illustration(s):
1

...19 (2010): 315–333. Lintott, Sheila . “Toward Eco-Friendly Aesthetics.” Environmental Ethics 28 (2006): 57–76. Moore, Ronald . Natural Beauty: A Theory of Aesthetics beyond the Arts . Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2008. Parsons, Glenn . Aesthetics and Nature . London: Continuum, 2008. Parsons, Glenn . “The Aesthetic Value of Animals.” Environmental Ethics 29 (2007): 151–169. Saito, Yuriko . “Appreciating Nature on Its Own Terms.” Environmental Ethics 20 (1998): 135–149. Saito, Yuriko . Everyday Aesthetics . Oxford: Oxford University Press...

Schlegel, August Wilhelm von

Schlegel, August Wilhelm von (1767–1845)   Reference library

Azade Seyhan

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,460 words

... Indische Bibliothek ( Indian Library ) and made available critical editions of the Bhagavadgītā in 1823 and the Rāmāyaṇa ‎ during the years 1829–1831 . Friedrich Schlegel and Novalis, the two major theorists of the Romantic school, are credited with translating the Kantian notions of critique and the autonomy of the work of art and Johann Gottlieb Fichte’s philosophy of reflection, respectively, into usable terms of Romantic criticism. Although the theoretical strength of August Wilhelm Schlegel’s aesthetics was questioned by later critics, it is...

Schopenhauer, Arthur

Schopenhauer, Arthur   Reference library

Jerrold Levinson and Sandra Shapshay

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,867 words

...Journal of Aesthetics 53, no. 2 (April 2013): 181–198. Shapshay, Sandra . “The Problem with the Problem of Tragedy: Schopenhauer’s Solution Revisited.” British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (2012): 17–32. Shapshay, Sandra . “Schopenhauer’s Transformation of the Kantian Sublime.” Kantian Review 17, no. 3 (2012): 479–511. Young, Julian . The Philosophy of Tragedy: From Plato to Žižek . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Sandra Shapshay...

Derrida, Jacques

Derrida, Jacques   Reference library

Stephen Melville, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Peggy Kamuf, and D. N. Rodowick

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,311 words

...insertion into temporality) by a responsibility bound by accountable reason. Ethics as experience of the impossible—therefore incalculable—is lived as the possible calculus that covers the range between self-interest and responsibility that includes the politico-legal. Justice and law, ethics and politics, and gift and responsibility are structureless structures because the first item of each pair is neither available nor unavailable. It is in view of justice and ethics as undeconstructible, as experiences of the impossible, that legal and political...

Fiction

Fiction   Reference library

Peter McCormick and Wolfgang Iser

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,354 words

...of “assumptions.” Roughly around the same time, that is, from 1902 to 1906 , Franz Brentano will explore in great detail, in his correspondence with Anton Marty, the “non-real” status of mental objects, including fictions. In his attempts to systematize neo-Kantian reflection on fictions under the Kantian notion of “as if,” Hans Vaihinger in his book The Philosophy of As If ( 1923 ) will take “fiction” as what some would call today a “term of art,” that is, a subjective formulation that, unlike hypotheses, is an element of several kinds of methodical...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Haun Saussy, Susan H. Bush, and Ban Wang

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,337 words
Illustration(s):
5

...authors, ultimately subordinate to ritual norms, it is occasionally said to counterbalance the excesses of ritual, for whereas “ritual distinguishes [people] insofar as they are unlike, music unifies [them] insofar as they are similar” ( Li ji ). If beauty is (to borrow the Kantian phrase) a “symbol of morality” for the early Chinese, the likeness rests on the properties of distinction, inclusiveness, integration, and compensatory balancing (the chief elements of the idea of he or harmony as expounded in ancient texts). The gentleman practices the art of...

Beauty

Beauty   Reference library

Stephen David Ross, Nickolas Pappas, Jan A. Aertsen, and Nicholas Riggle

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,875 words

...dominant European tradition of ideas of beauty through the Renaissance, still present today in Thomist thought, linking beauty with order and with pleasure and its apprehension. Even so, Aristotle links beauty with excellence in his Nicomachean Ethics . And he expands the Delphic oracle’s maxim in his Eudemian Ethics to say that “happiness is at once the most beautiful and best of all things and also the pleasantest.” He barely speaks of beauty in his Poetics , except to say that it is “a matter of size and order.” Yet, his Rhetoric is filled with...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

John Dixon Hunt and Mara Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,762 words
Illustration(s):
1

...redressed, particularly with regard to aesthetics, meaning, political interpretation, and (virtue) ethics. Even now, however, important issues are understudied, such as comparative metaphysics (definitions of nature and of “live,” the fictional or imaginary status of the work), social and political philosophy (social exclusion, relations to power and the “public sphere,” constructing the “third place”), and various branches of ethics, including environmental ethics and distributive justice. Many of the rewarding discussions of philosophical topics, moreover, are...

Emerson, Ralph Waldo

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1881)   Reference library

Timothy Gould

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,748 words

.... Listening on All Sides: Towards an Emersonian Ethics of Reading . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007. Ellison, Julie . Emerson’s Romantic Style . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984. Gonnaud, Maurice . An Uneasy Solitude . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987. Goodman, Russell B. American Philosophy and the Romantic Tradition . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Gould, Timothy . “Ralph Waldo Emerson.” In Encyclopedia of Ethics , edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte...

Geography

Geography   Reference library

Harriet Hawkins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,038 words

... 4 (1991): 73–100. Barrell, John . The Dark Side of the Landscape: The Rural Poor in English Painting 1730–1840 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Boetzkes, Amanda . The Ethics of Earth Art . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010. Brady, Emily . “Aesthetic Regard for Nature in Environmental and Land Art.” Ethics, Place and Environment 10, no. 3 (2007): 287–300. Buttimer, Anne . “Beyond Humboldtian Science and Goethe’s Way of Science: Challenges of Alexander von Humboldt’s Geography.” Erdkunde 55, no. 2 (2001):...

View: