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Kantian ethics

An approach to moral questions deriving from the teachings and writing of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). It is characterized by an emphasis on the rational endeavour of ...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

Kelley L. Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,402 words
Illustration(s):
1

...looks like various fragments of Kant's theory. German Idealists such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( 1762–1814 ), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ( 1775–1854 ), and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770–1831 ) dispensed with things in themselves, as did the later neo-Kantians such as Wilhelm Windelband ( 1848–1915 ). Another modern tendency has been to dismiss objective morality, as was done by Friedrich Nietzsche ( 1844–1900 ) and such existentialists as Jean-Paul Sartre ( 1905–1980 ) and Martin Heidegger ( 1889–1976 ). That Sartre ended up...

Kant, Immanuel

Kant, Immanuel   Reference library

Paul Guyer, Salim Kemal, Kenneth R. Westphal, Theodore A. Gracyk, Günter Zöller, Mark A. Cheetham, Rudolf A. Makkreel, Jane Kneller, and Thierry de Duve

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
37,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...orientation of nineteenth-century aesthetics comes from the movement of neo-Kantianism in German academic philosophy. Yet, while the neo-Kantians dominated professional philosophy late in the nineteenth and early in the twentieth century, they exercised little influence on contemporary aesthetic debates and theories of art. The neo-Kantians agreed with psychological Kantianism on the foundational role of the subject in the constitution of the world and its objects. But on the neo-Kantian view, the subject in question is not some concrete, empirically existing...

Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism   Reference library

Luca Prono

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,143 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opposed Coleridge's view of the human mind as creative in favor of John Locke's theory of the mind as a passive receiver of impressions. But following Coleridge, they established correspondences between nature and spirit and the human mind that recognizes them. German post-Kantian philosophers such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schelling were also influential. The birth of transcendentalism was stimulated by a quarrel in the Unitarian churches of Boston, and transcendentalist texts often reveal a polemical edge. Though Unitarian ministers...

Justice, Theories of

Justice, Theories of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,528 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the correction of dealings between two parties, where an accident or an intentional injury has created an imbalance (Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics , 5.2. 1130b30–1131a1). Aristotle argued that both kinds of justice could be seen as “a species of the proportionate” ( Nicomachean Ethics , 5.3.1131a29). He also introduced the idea of “legal justice,” which entails following the rules already promulgated ( Nicomachean Ethics , 5.1. 1129b12). Later writers have frequently referred to the application of justice to particular topics—applications that are sometime...

Environmental Aesthetics

Environmental Aesthetics   Reference library

Arnold Berleant and Emily S. Brady

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,096 words
Illustration(s):
1

...19 (2010): 315–333. Lintott, Sheila . “Toward Eco-Friendly Aesthetics.” Environmental Ethics 28 (2006): 57–76. Moore, Ronald . Natural Beauty: A Theory of Aesthetics beyond the Arts . Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2008. Parsons, Glenn . Aesthetics and Nature . London: Continuum, 2008. Parsons, Glenn . “The Aesthetic Value of Animals.” Environmental Ethics 29 (2007): 151–169. Saito, Yuriko . “Appreciating Nature on Its Own Terms.” Environmental Ethics 20 (1998): 135–149. Saito, Yuriko . Everyday Aesthetics . Oxford: Oxford University Press...

Ecofeminism and Global Environmental Politics

Ecofeminism and Global Environmental Politics   Reference library

Juliann Emmons Allison

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,712 words
Illustration(s):
1

...). Ecofeminist Perspectives on Environmental Ethics Ecofeminists’ most significant contributions to global environmental politics feature cogent critiques of environmental ethics. Much of the literature on ethics that is relevant to thinking about the politics of transboundary and global environmental problems is distinguished by a common effort to incorporate the moral treatment of the natural environment and nonhuman species into traditional ethical frameworks – e.g., utilitarianism or Kantian reasoning – which premise moral action on the...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Haun Saussy, Susan H. Bush, and Ban Wang

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,337 words
Illustration(s):
5

...authors, ultimately subordinate to ritual norms, it is occasionally said to counterbalance the excesses of ritual, for whereas “ritual distinguishes [people] insofar as they are unlike, music unifies [them] insofar as they are similar” ( Li ji ). If beauty is (to borrow the Kantian phrase) a “symbol of morality” for the early Chinese, the likeness rests on the properties of distinction, inclusiveness, integration, and compensatory balancing (the chief elements of the idea of he or harmony as expounded in ancient texts). The gentleman practices the art of...

Gardens

Gardens   Reference library

John Dixon Hunt and Mara Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,762 words
Illustration(s):
1

...redressed, particularly with regard to aesthetics, meaning, political interpretation, and (virtue) ethics. Even now, however, important issues are understudied, such as comparative metaphysics (definitions of nature and of “live,” the fictional or imaginary status of the work), social and political philosophy (social exclusion, relations to power and the “public sphere,” constructing the “third place”), and various branches of ethics, including environmental ethics and distributive justice. Many of the rewarding discussions of philosophical topics, moreover, are...

Whewell, William

Whewell, William (1794–1866)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
9,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Morality , p. 13) And moreover, although there is no direct reference to Kant, one senses that Whewell in a way favours the German's meta-ethics, that is to say the proof of the moral rules that we should follow. Again in parallel with his science, Whewell thought that morality ultimately reveals itself as necessary, that is as having principles at its heart that cannot be broken. The proof of this, in a Kantian fashion, seems to be that violation of such rules would lead to a kind of contradiction, not a logical contradiction but a social or practical...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,778 words
Illustration(s):
1

...authors, ultimately subordinate to ritual norms, it is occasionally said to counterbalance the excesses of ritual, for whereas “ritual distinguishes [people] insofar as they are unlike, music unifies [them] insofar as they are similar” ( Li ji ). If beauty is (to borrow the Kantian phrase) a “symbol of morality” for the early Chinese, the likeness rests on the properties of distinction, inclusiveness, integration, and compensatory balancing (the chief elements of the idea of he or harmony as expounded in ancient texts). The gentleman practices the art of...

Russian Aesthetics

Russian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,552 words
Illustration(s):
2

...ethics in culture becomes one of the most important problems in Russian religious aesthetics. This problem becomes particularly acute for the great nineteenth-century Russian writers. Like Gogol, Konstantin N. Leontyev ( 1831–1891 )—a prophet of pure aestheticism—toward the end of his life resolves this problem in favor of Christian ethics. Fyodor Dostoyevsky centers his literary activity on his attempts to resolve the tragic conflict between the ethical and the aesthetic. As a result, the Russian writer chooses the ideal of early Christian ethics—the...

Russian Aesthetics

Russian Aesthetics   Reference library

Victor V. Bychkov, Oleg V. Bychkov, Oleg V. Bychkov, William E. Harkins, and William E. Harkins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,323 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ethics in culture becomes one of the most important problems in Russian religious aesthetics. This problem becomes particularly acute for the great nineteenth-century Russian writers. Like Gogol, Konstantin N. Leontyev ( 1831–1891 )—a prophet of pure aestheticism—toward the end of his life resolves this problem in favor of Christian ethics. Fyodor Dostoyevsky focuses his literary activity on his attempts to resolve the tragic conflict between the ethical and the aesthetic. As a result, the Russian writer chooses the ideal of early Christian ethics—the...

Museums

Museums   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,534 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Would Be Like,” chose the latter. Most would rather study the conditions under which different aesthetic doctrines capture philosophical and lay imaginations than take part in the philosophical debates themselves. If forced, however, they would doubtless admit to a distaste for Kantian idealism (Bourdieu, 1984 ) and an affinity for institutionalism (Becker, 1982 ). It is the precisely the centrality of the art museum among the institutions of art that has made it such an appealing object for social-scientific attention. See also Sociology of Art ....

Museums

Museums   Reference library

Hilde Hein, Donald Preziosi, and Paul J. DiMaggio

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,019 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Would Be Like,” chose the latter. Most would rather study the conditions under which different aesthetic doctrines capture philosophical and lay imaginations than take part in the philosophical debates themselves. If forced, however, they would doubtless admit to a distaste for Kantian idealism ( Bourdieu, 1984 ) and an affinity for institutionalism ( Becker, 1982 ). It is the precisely the centrality of the art museum among the institutions of art that has made it such an appealing object for social-scientific attention. [ See also Sociology of Art .] B...

Feminist Perspectives on Criminal Justice in Popular Culture

Feminist Perspectives on Criminal Justice in Popular Culture   Reference library

Greta Olson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,208 words
Illustration(s):
4

...standard of law that would admit women’s subjective difference to men and determine whether a law is viable on the basis of whether it renders women’s lives happier or increases their suffering. These and other feminist perspectives point out that notions of justice based on Kantian ethics assume an equality between persons that simply does not exist, given the systematic discrimination of women. If crimes against women are rendered invisible by law or are treated with the same standards that are applied to men, then unequal treatment shall remain. This has led...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

Indra Kagis McEwen, Bissera V. Pentcheva, James S. Ackerman, Erika Naginski, Karsten Harries, David Goldblatt, Kristina Luce, and Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
25,690 words
Illustration(s):
6

...“purposiveness without purpose.” Walter Benjamin sums up the inheritance of this tradition in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” when he notes that “buildings are appropriated in a two-fold manner, by use and by perception.” This Kantian/Hegelian tradition has set the parameters for our aesthetic, ethical, and political understanding of architecture since the eighteenth century. One consequence of this inheritance is that it has led to a mistrust of representation and mimesis when it comes to architecture, which...

Luther Renaissance

Luther Renaissance   Reference library

Heinrich Assel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...its heuristics. 31 For Einar Billing’s early analysis of Luther’s concept of the state, the context of discovery was a threefold diagnosis of the “crisis” (revivalism, secularism and socialism, historicism). 32 Particularly in regard to the reconstruction of Luther’s ethics and political ethics, the Swedish Luther Renaissance was different from the German Luther Renaissance and influenced by its own republican and welfare-state viewpoint. The international importance of the Swedish Luther Renaissance became evident around 1925 in the works of well-known...

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