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Neolithic Revolution

Subject: Archaeology

[Ge] A term popularized by Gordon Childe in the 1940s to reflect the huge impact on life that was made by the development and spread of farming, which he saw as one of two ...

Archaeology in the Ancient Near East

Archaeology in the Ancient Near East   Reference library

Oxford Bible Atlas (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,160 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...which were stone‐lined hearths. There were also many burial pits. These dwellings are dated to the Natufian period which ended in about 8500 bce . The earliest remains from Jericho also belong to the Natufian culture. The Natufian period gave way to the Neolithic, more specifically the Pre‐Pottery Neolithic era, and at Jericho a settlement of round houses developed and was surrounded by a wall—the earliest The Near East: Principal Archaeological Sites ...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...At its greatest extent Ain Ghazal covered over 12 hectares (30 acres), making it three times as large as its contemporary, Neolithic Jericho. The earliest settlement was relatively small, covering 2 hectares (5 acres), and half of the faunal remains recovered were of wild animals. Forty-five species are represented, reflecting the area's rich ecosystem, with gazelle the most frequently occurring. The Neolithic revolution had already begun at Ain Ghazal in the village's earliest years. Domesticated goats constituted half of the entire faunal...

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia   Reference library

Alan Simmons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,709 words
Illustration(s):
8

...revolution was in fact a relatively slow process, with its roots in the preceding cultural period. In particular, one of the last phases of the Epipaleolithic period, the Natufian, is important since it set much of the framework for the Neolithic period. The Natufian is divided into early and late phases. It is followed by two broad periods, the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (or PPN), and the Pottery Neolithic (or the PN, also sometimes called the Late Neolithic). These broad periods are subdivided, with the PPN divided into the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, B, and C...

Prehistoric mythology of the Neolithic

Prehistoric mythology of the Neolithic   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...it was one of the many examples of what has come to be known as the “Neolithic revolution.” “Revolution” is perhaps not the best word to attach to a process that was gradual rather than immediate. Still, the changes that occurred during the period in question ( 8000–3000 b.c.e. ) are comparable to other periods of radical change, such as the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century or the current technological revolution. What had happened in the Middle East by the end of the Neolithic was a radical change from a life based on hunting and gathering to...

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe   Reference library

Aurélie Salavert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,374 words
Illustration(s):
6

...is one of the main components of Neolithic economy, associated with animal husbandry, potterymaking, and sedentary habitats in western Europe ( Price & Bar-Yosef, 2011 ). Often described as a revolution ( Childe, 1925 ), the Neolithic period appears today like a transitional phenomenon in the Near East, as well as in the diffusion of its economy to Europe. Agriculture did not arrive suddenly. It took around 3,000 years for domesticates to spread from the Aegean to Great Britain and Ireland. But even if it was not a revolution, the invention of agriculture and...

῾Ain Ghazal

῾Ain Ghazal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

...London, 1986. Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse. “The Aftermath of the Levantine Neolithic Revolution in the Light of Ecological and Ethnographic Evidence.” Paléorient 14.1 (1988): 87–93. Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse , and Gary O. Rollefson . “The Impact of Neolithic Subsistence Strategies on the Environment: The Case of ῾Ain Ghazal, Jordan.” In Man's Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape , edited by Sytze Bottema et al., pp. 3–14. Rotterdam, 1990. Mellaart, James . The Neolithic of the Near East . New York, 1975. Perrot, Jean. “ Les deux premières...

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia

Early History of Animal Domestication in Southwest Asia   Reference library

Benjamin S. Arbuckle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,035 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Science , 72 , 1–9. Atici, A. L. (2011). Before the revolution: Epipaleolithic subsistence in the western Taurus Mountains, Turkey . BAR International Monograph Series 2251. Oxford, U.K.: Archaeopress. Atici, A. L. , Birch, S. E. P. , & Erdoğu, B. (2017). Spread of domestic animals across Neolithic western Anatolia: New zooarchaeological evidence from Uğurlu Höyük, the island of Gökçeada, Turkey. PLOS One , 12 , e0186519. Baird, D. (2012). The late Epipaleolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic of the Anatolian Plateau, 13,000–4000 BC. In D....

earthenware pottery

earthenware pottery   Reference library

Peter Tomkins

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,227 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Neolithic (ca. 9–11,000 b.c.e. ). Unfortunately, however, the fact that these earliest farming groups only used organic containers means that we cannot use pottery to test this hypothesis. It is nevertheless suggestive that as soon as pottery first appears in the farming societies of the Near East and southeastern Europe (ca. 7300–6000 b.c.e. ) it provides direct evidence, in the form of milk residues, for dairying practices, which in all probability means cheesemaking. In addition the presence of milk lipids in early Neolithic pottery from...

The Agriculture of Early India

The Agriculture of Early India   Reference library

Charlene Murphy and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
13,962 words
Illustration(s):
8

...origins on the Indian subcontinent. (EH) Eastern Early Harappan, (GN) Ganges Neolithic, (ON) Orissa Neolithic, (SC) Sorath Chalcolithic and Banas Culture, (NDC) North Deccan Chalcolithic, (SN) Southern Neolithic and (KGM) Kili Ghul Mohammad. Sites. Regions of plausible crop domestication: (1) South Deccan, (2) Middle Ganges and/or Vindhyas, (3) Upper Mahanadi, (4) Foothills of the Indo-Gangetic Divide, (5) Saurashtra or Southern Aravallis. Zones of early farming Neolithic/Chalcolithic culture areas: 1. Lahuradewa 2. Mehrgarh 3. Kunal 4. Tigrana 5. Senuwar...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the growth of a suite of preferred plants. Gradually, they began to clear land of competing plants, plant seeds, and weed, and, importantly, began to select which seeds would produce the next generations of plants. V. Gordon Childe ( 1953 ) labeled this change the “Neolithic Revolution.” Over the succeeding 8,000 years, an instant in human evolutionary history, the process would be repeated independently in Southeast Asia, Mesoamerica, Africa, South America, and North America. The adoption of agriculture has been one of the dominant subjects in...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...crops. As the coal mining and much of the heavy industry are currently controlled by separatists, further strain has been placed on what was already a poorly performing economy. In January 2016, a free trade area was established with the EU. History Originally inhabited by Neolithic settlers in the Dnieper and Dniester valleys, Ukraine was overrun by numerous invaders before Varangian adventurers founded a powerful Slav kingdom based on Kiev in the 9th century. Mongol conquest in the 13th century was followed in the 14th century by Lithuanian overlordship...

Barley in Archaeology and Early History

Barley in Archaeology and Early History   Reference library

Simone Riehl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,328 words
Illustration(s):
4

... Watkins, T. (2008). Supra-regional networks in the Neolithic of Southwest Asia . Journal of World Prehistory, 21 (2), 139–171. Watkins, T. (2010). New light on Neolithic revolution in south-west Asia. Antiquity, 84 , 621–634. Watkins, T. (2013). Neolithisation needs evolution, as evolution needs neolithisation. Neolithics , 2 , 5–10. Weide, A. , Riehl, S. , Zeidi, M. , & Conard, N. J. (2015). Using new morphological criteria to identify domesticated emmer wheat at the aceramic Neolithic site of Chogha Golan (Iran) . Journal of...

Granaries and Silos

Granaries and Silos   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,028 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and proper ventilation. Examples can be found throughout the former Roman Empire in cities, at harbors, and at military installations ( Rickman , 1980 ). Subterranean facilities were publicly and privately owned. This type of storage facility dates back to the time of the Neolithic revolution. Some of the earliest grain-storage pits have been discovered at Maghzaliyeh (Iraq) dating to the seventh millennium bce (Huot, 1992 , p. 189). Plastered subterranean granaries have been found at Gezer in Iron Age I and Middle Bronze IIA levels. The stone-lined,...

Hasanlu

Hasanlu   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,551 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Archaeological remains show an Urartian occupation of Hasanlu in the late eighth to seventh century bce . Archaeologically, the best-known period of occupation at Hasanlu is the Iron Age (periods V–III), but earlier periods have also been documented, extending back to the Late Neolithic (Hasanlu X, or the Hajji Firuz period; see Dyson, 1983 ). Hasanlu V begins in the second half of the second millennium bce ; period IV, dating from the end of the second millennium to the end of the ninth century bce is richly documented because it was destroyed by fire...

Prehistory

Prehistory   Reference library

Marcia‐Anne Dobres

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
5,432 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of gendered divisions of labor were probably practiced across the Old World, there is no reason to assume that such divisions were based on a binary (heterosexual) model. In all likelihood at least some such cultures enjoyed third and fourth genders. Nor can we Neolithic Burial. Remains of a Neolithic woman discovered at Cys-la-Commune, Aisne, accompanied by ornaments attesting to her wealth, including sandstone and limestone bracelets and a necklace of small limestone disks and large cylindrical beads made from shell, c. 4500 b.c.e. Musée des Antiquités...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

Jeannine David‐Kimball and Shoshana Keller

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
9,873 words
Illustration(s):
4

...increased grain consumption. It can be deduced from this information that women milked the sheep, making cheeses for consumption immediately and later in the year, and that those not giving birth or caring for infants gathered wild edibles. Neolithic Period in Central Asia. During the Neolithic Revolution, in addition to pastoralism, agriculture developed c. 6000 b.c.e . as a second economic base in the southern Turkmenistan Djeitun culture. Houses were constructed of daubed and painted clay brick and averaged 20 to 30 square meters (215 to 323...

Nile

Nile   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
6,272 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than habitation sites, it is still uncertain whether, in addition to residual fisher and gathering groups, there may also have been distinct groups favoring farming activities or pastoralism. In both the Faiyum and Nile Valley, therefore, it is plausible that there was no “Neolithic Revolution.” Instead, it is possible that several groups of people with different ecological adaptations utilized the larger system represented by the Egyptian Nile, emphasizing complementary or only partially overlapping econiches. Alternatively, their economies may have been...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Cornelia Butler Flora, Pam J. Crabtree, Carolyn E. Sachs, and Christine D. Worobec

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
12,487 words
Illustration(s):
4

...demanding, aspects of maize cultivation and distribution. Similar studies are also being carried out in the Old World. For example, in her 2002 volume Sexual Revolutions: Gender and Labor at the Dawn of Agriculture , Jane Peterson discusses the evidence of human skeletal remains from Natufian and Neolithic sites in the southern Levant and how this may help us understand the pre‐Neolithic sexual division of labor and the ways in which it may have changed with the adoption of agriculture. Her data suggest some sexual division of labor during the...

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant

Consequences of Agriculture in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Levant   Reference library

John M. Marston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
17,208 words
Illustration(s):
1

...centuries bc ). Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 14 (4), 301–324. Bandy, M. S. (2005). New World settlement evidence for a two-stage Neolithic Demographic Transition. Current Anthropology, 46 (S5), S109–S115. Barker, G. W. (2002). A tale of two deserts: Contrasting desertification histories on Rome’s desert frontiers . World Archaeology, 33 (3), 488–507. Barker, G. W. (2009). The agricultural revolution in prehistory: Why did foragers become farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barker, G. W. , Adams, R. , Creighton, O. H. , Gilbertson...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,242 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Braidwood's expedition to Jarmo in Iraq began a systematic gathering of botanical evidence for plant domestication (Braidwood, 1960 ). [See Jarmo .] The transition from the foraging cultures of the late Epipaleolithic ( c. 11,000–9000 bce ) to the farming cultures of the Neolithic ( c. 9000–5000 bce ) is documented by vegetal and animal remains recovered in excavations, by artifacts—prehistoric tools and facilities—and by human skeletal remains. Village life preceded farming. At sites such as Hayonim, Mureybet, and Abu Hureyra in the southern Levant and...

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