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electrophorus

An early form of electrostatic generator. It consists of a flat dielectric plate and a metal plate with an insulated handle. The dielectric plate is charged by friction and the metal plate ...

electrophorus

electrophorus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... An early form of simple electrostatic charge generator. A flat dielectric plate (‘cake’) is positively charged by friction. A metal plate with an insulated handle is placed on the cake and momentarily earthed, taking with it an induced negative charge when it is removed. The process can be repeated until the original positive charge has leaked away. ...

electrophorus

electrophorus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
73 words

...electrophorus An early form of electrostatic generator . It consists of a flat dielectric plate and a metal plate with an insulated handle. The dielectric plate is charged by friction and the metal plate is placed on it and momentarily earthed, which leaves the metal plate with an induced charge of opposite polarity to that of the dielectric plate. The process can be repeated until all of the original charge has leaked away....

electrolectin

electrolectin   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
25 words

...a lectin of the galaptin family from Electrophorus electricus , and the name of a group of β ‐d‐galactoside‐binding lectins found in teleosts, amphibians, and...

electrostatic generator

electrostatic generator   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
41 words

...electrostatic generator A device used to build up electric charge to an extreme potential usually for experimental purposes. The electrophorus and the Wimshurst machine were early examples; a more usual device now is the Van de Graaff generator...

Volta, Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio

Volta, Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio (1745–1827)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
68 words

...Volta, Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio ( 1745–1827 ) Italian physicist . In 1774 he began teaching in Como and in that year invented the electrophorus . He moved to Pavia University in 1778 . In 1800 he announced his invention of the voltaic cell , thus providing the first practical source of electric current ( see also Galvani, Luigi ). The SI unit of potential difference is named after...

electric organ

electric organ n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...organ n. A specialized area of modified muscle tissue in certain fishes such as the electric eel ( Electrophorus electricus ), the electric catfish ( Malapterurus electricus ), or the electric ray ( Tetranarce occidentalis ), such tissue being capable of discharging an electric shock to any animal that touches it. See also electroreceptor...

Volta, Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio

Volta, Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio (1745–1827)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
83 words

...Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio ( 1745–1827 ) Italian physicist . In 1774 he began teaching in Como and in that year invented the electrophorus. He moved to Pavia University in 1778 . In 1800 he made the first voltaic cell , thus providing the first practical source of electric current. The invention of the voltaic cell very soon led to the discovery of electrolysis , thus demonstrating a close link between chemistry and electricity. The SI unit of potential difference is named after...

electric organ

electric organ   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
102 words

...electric organ An organ occurring on the body or tail of certain fish, such as the electric ray ( Torpedo ) and electric eel ( Electrophorus electricus ). It gives an electric shock when touched and is used either to stun prey or predators or, in some species, to maintain a weak electric field in the surrounding water that is used in navigation. The organ is composed of modified muscle cells ( electroplate or electroplax cells ), nervous stimulation of which greatly increases the potential difference across the cell. The electroplates are in series so a high...

Electrophoridae

Electrophoridae   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
89 words

... ( electric eel ) ( class Actinopterygii , order Gymnotiformes ) A monospecific family ( Electrophorus electricus , electric eel) which has an elongate, eel-like body with a long anal fin confluent with the tail fin. There are no scales, and the dorsal fin is absent. The long tail region contains the specialized muscles that form the electric organ, which is capable of producing about 600 volts per discharge. It is found only in the Amazon and Orinoco rivers of S. America. See also electric fish...

sodium channel

sodium channel   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
210 words

...integral proteins in the plasma membranes of excitable cells. They sense the membrane electric field, opening channels to permit an inward flux of sodium ions, thereby causing the membrane depolarization that is essential for the propagation of the action potential . The Electrophorus electroplax protein is a single chain of about 2000 amino‐acid residues and contains four homologous repeats, each of which has six putative transmembrane segments with extensive nonmembrane cytosolic and extracellular loops. It shares significant homology with other ion...

electric fish

electric fish   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
105 words

...fish Fish that are capable of generating electric discharges. A number of species, belonging to different families, have this capability. Some (e.g. Electrophorus electricus (electric eel) and the electric rays, such as the Atlantic Torpedo nobiliana ) can produce strong, stunning currents capable of immobilizing potential prey. The electric organs are derived from muscle tissue which is organized as a series of units, each one acting as a type of battery. The electric eel (which is related to the carp, not to the true eel) also uses the electrical...

electrical machine

electrical machine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
449 words

...Smaller and portable machines became popular for electrotherapy. In 1775 the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (see Galvani, Luigi , and Alessandro Volta ) invented the electrophorus, a device based on electrostatic induction, which could produce an almost endless series of electrical discharges. In 1788 William Nicholson mechanized the routine of charging the electrophorus in “doublers” that raised to detectable magnitude charges otherwise too small to measure. Other natural philosophers of the period produced similar devices. A similar technique...

Volta, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio

Volta, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
343 words

...decided early that his life's work lay in the study of electricity and, by the age of 24, had developed his own version of Benjamin Franklin's electrical fluid theory. In 1774 he started teaching physics at the gymnasium in Como, where, a few months later, he invented the electrophorus – a device for producing electric charge by friction and, at the time, the most efficient way of storing electric charge. On the strength of this invention he was promoted, in 1775 , to the position of professor of physics at Como and, three years later, took up a similar...

Galvani, Luigi

Galvani, Luigi (1737–1797)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,143 words

...whose education they attended personally. By the 1780s Volta had won European fame as an electrician, particularly as an inventor of electrical machines and as a chemist specializing in the chemistry of airs. Before the controversy with Galvani began, Volta had invented the electrophorus, eudiometer, electric pistol, condensatore (a device that made weak electricity detectable), and straw electrometer. Volta's contributions to the science of electricity included the notions of tension, capacity, and actuation (an ancestor of electrostatic induction). Thanks...

Characins, Catfishes, Carps, and Allies

Characins, Catfishes, Carps, and Allies   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
9,720 words
Illustration(s):
6

...fox (Epalzeorhynchous kallopterus) is a favored aquarium species; 10 The Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) has a very limited distribution in the western USA, and is classed as Endangered; 11 Ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons); 12 Electric knifefish (Electrophorus electricus); 13 Milkfish (Chanos chanos) . The shark catfishes (Pangasiidae), numbering about 21 species, are possibly the most economically important of the Southeast Asian catfish families. In Thailand, Pangasius species have been pond-reared on fruit and vegetables...

Tarpons, Bonefishes, and Eels

Tarpons, Bonefishes, and Eels   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
8,106 words
Illustration(s):
13

...testudineus ) and the totally unrelated Walking catfish ( Clarias batrachus ) of the family Clariidae. Both these types of fishes have pouches above the gill chamber, with linings expanded into convoluted shapes that increase the surface area. The Electric eel ( Electrophorus electricus ), which spends only a small part of its life out of water, can use its gills for aerial respiration, while the mudskippers ( Periophthalmus spp.), which spend a lot of their life out of water, can use their skin. Fishes on land have a problem in keeping cool,...

volt

volt   Quick reference

A New Dictionary of Eponyms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
270 words

...theory and became a rallying point for those opposed to it. His prominence was such that he was elected to England's Royal Society and was the first foreigner to receive the Royal Society's Copley Medal. Volta invented or improved a number of electrical devices, such as the electrophorus, which transfers electric charges to other objects. He discovered the electric decomposition of water and developed a theory of current electricity in physics. His inventions include the electrical condenser and the voltaic pile , which became the prototype of the dry-cell...

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