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aRNA

Amplified RNA. See RNA amplification.

Bontemps, Arna

Bontemps, Arna (b. 13 October 1902)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
918 words
Illustration(s):
1

...If the “New Negro” is emblematic of the spirit of the Harlem Renaissance, then Arna Bontemps was truly a New Negro and truly a renaissance man, always excavating, collecting, anthologizing, and chronicling, always creating legacies for the future generations of African Americans through his work as a librarian, poet, short-story writer, historian, and anthologist. Arna Bontemps with Other Poets, 1945 . At the Jackson State College festival, Mississippi. Back row, left to right: Arna Bontemps, Melvin Tolson, Jacob Reddix, Queen Dodson, and Robert Hayden. Front...

Ari Þorgilsson

Ari Þorgilsson (1148)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
112 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ascribed to Ari is a short history of Iceland, the Libellus Islandorum , often called Íslendingabók (‘Book of Icelanders’), written between 1122 and 1133 . Page from Ari Þorgilsson’s Íslendingabók . AM 113 b fol. 17th century copy of Íslendingabók c.1130. Photo by Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum. Reykjavík Kirsten Wolf J. Benediktsson , ed., Íslendingabók—Landnámabók (1968). S. Grønlie , tr., Íslendingabók—Kristni saga ...

Postola sǫgur

Postola sǫgur   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
356 words

...in Icelandic Hagiography’, Ph.D. thesis (Cornell, 1969). P. Foote , ed., A Saga of St Peter the Apostle: Perg. 4:o nr 19 in the Royal Library, Stockholm (1990). Ó. Halldórsson , ed., Mattheus saga postula (1994). A. Holtsmark , ed., A Book of Miracles: MS No. 645 4to of the Arna-Magnæan Collection in the University Library of Copenhagen (1938). D. Slay , ed., Codex Scardensis (1960). G. Turville-Petre , Origins of Icelandic Literature (1953). C. R. Unger , ed., Postola sögur: Legendariske fortællinger om apostlernes liv deres kamp for kristendommens...

Harsh, Vivian Gordon

Harsh, Vivian Gordon (27 May 1890)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,179 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( WPA ) Federal Writers Project launched a study called “The Negro in Illinois.” Headed by Arna Bontemps ; the library served as its unofficial headquarters. Many young scholars were attracted to the library’s “Book Review and Lecture Forum,” begun by Harsh in 1933 . Its semimonthly meetings continued for twenty years and featured an impressive array of black speakers, including Richard Wright , Langston Hughes , Zora Neale Hurston , Arna Bontemps, Gwendolyn Brooks , Horace Cayton , William Attaway , Margaret Walker , Alain Locke , and ...

Fire!!

Fire!!   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
561 words

...skin color–consciousness and inferiority complex created a moving tragedy. Gwendolyn Bennett's story “Wedding Day” was about a difficult love that conquered an expatriate black boxer's hatred toward whites. Poems by Langston Hughes , Countée Cullen , Helene Johnson , and Arna Bontemps were bold and candid in their exploration of racial themes. Aaron Douglas, the most important visual artist of the Harlem Renaissance, contributed several line drawings that accentuated the typical features of the black race. His impressive cover emphasized the...

Negro: An Anthology

Negro: An Anthology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
640 words

...voting rights, education, music, folklore and ethnography, art and artifacts, poetry, journalism, photography, and historical documents on the black experience in America, the West Indies and South America, Europe, and Africa. Among the 150 contributors were Samuel Beckett , Arna Bontemps , Sterling Brown , Henry Crowder , Countée Cullen , Nancy Cunard , Theodore Dreiser , W. E. B. Du Bois , James Ford , Eugene Gordon , Nicholás Guillén , Langston Hughes , Zora Neale Hurston , Jomo Kenyatta , Raymond Michelet , George Padmore , Ezra Pound ,...

Johnson, Georgia Douglas

Johnson, Georgia Douglas (10 September 1877)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,545 words
Illustration(s):
1

...responded to her critics with a book of poetry titled Bronze: A Book of Verse , which addresses miscegenation as well as mothering in a racist world. She was praised by W. E. B. Du Bois and Jessie Redmon Fauset for this work, but Johnson herself admitted in a letter to Arna Bontemps that she preferred not to write on racial themes, saying that “if one can soar, he should soar, leaving his chains behind.” During this productive period, Johnson struggled to balance her roles as housewife and writer. She was an unconventional wife and mother,...

Messenger, The

Messenger, The   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
987 words

...Victorian aesthetics The Messenger published an amazingly wide variety of Harlem Renaissance writers, leading some commentators to say that it read more like Vanity Fair than like a magazine of protest. In The Messenger of these years one finds the poets Countée Cullen , Arna Bontemps , Langston Hughes , Georgia Douglas Johnson , and Helene Johnson . There was also fiction by Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston , plays by Schuyler , theater and book reviews, and essays on literary and cultural topics as well as social and political ones. All in all,...

Harlem Renaissance.

Harlem Renaissance.   Reference library

Amritjit Singh

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
868 words

...voice. Wealthy and well-meaning white patrons could prove stifling as well, as Langston Hughes recalled in his memoir The Big Sea ( 1940 ). But writers as diverse as McKay , Hughes, Hurston, Rudolph Fisher , Nella Larsen , Georgia Douglas Johnson , George Schuyler , Arna Bontemps , Gwendolyn Bennett , and Dorothy West did achieve a measure of artistic freedom. Inspired by little magazines such as Fire!! and by works like Jean Toomer's Cane ( 1923 ), Marita Bonner's On Being Young—a Woman—and Colored ( 1925 ), Hughes's Weary Blues and ...

Cullen, CountÉe

Cullen, CountÉe (b. 30 May 1903)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,061 words
Illustration(s):
1

...whom Cullen had met in the summer of 1923 . Despite Yolande being considered by some to be of modest intelligence, and despite her being quite open about her infatuation with the jazz bandleader Jimmie Lunceford , Cullen went through with the ceremony, even asking Hughes and Arna Bontemps to serve as ushers. Two months after the wedding, Cullen left for Paris on a Guggenheim Fellowship for creative writing with his father and Jackman. Yolande visited him in Paris in July, and during her visit the two agreed to end their marriage. Cullen spent two very...

Hurston, Zora Neale

Hurston, Zora Neale (b. 7 January 1891)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,058 words

...the Republican presidential nomination in 1952 . Even Hurston's autobiography further alienated her from critics and other African Americans; but the same autobiography was credited for its contribution to better race relations and won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award. The critic Arna Bontemps stated, “Miss Hurston deals very simply with the more serious aspects of Negro life in America—she ignores them.” Her ignoring of race relations led some critics to see her autobiography as perhaps “the best fiction she ever wrote” (Plant, p. 10). With unfortunate...

Larsen, Nella

Larsen, Nella (13 April 1891)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Press, 1986. Perry, Margaret . Silence to the Drums: A Survey of the Literature of the Harlem Renaissance . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976. Soto, Hiroko . Under the Harlem Shadow: A Study of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen. In Harlem Renaissance Remembered , edited by Arna Bontemps . New York: Dodd, Mead, 1984. Tate, Claudia . Nella Larsen’s Passing : A Problem of Interpretation. Black American Literature Forum , Winter 1980. Washington, Mary Helen , ed. Invented Lives: Narratives of Black Women 1860-1960 . Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1987....

Wilson, August

Wilson, August (b. 27 April 1945)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,135 words
Illustration(s):
1

...papers for them. Wilson became discouraged and dropped out of school, much to his mother's dismay. He spent the next four years reading extensively. Wilson, who had learned to read at the age of four and had a library card at age five, discovered the writers Ralph Ellison , Arna Bontemps , and Langston Hughes when he was fourteen. Shortly thereafter he realized that he wanted to be a writer. In 1965 , the same year that he changed his name, Wilson bought a typewriter with twenty dollars he had earned for writing a paper for one of his sisters, and he...

Brooks, Gwendolyn

Brooks, Gwendolyn (b. 7 June 1917)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,314 words
Illustration(s):
1

... AP Images Brooks took part in a number of writers’ workshops, and her body of work continued to grow and evolve. It was a fortuitous moment. The South Side's literary scene proved to be fertile ground for the young poet. Mingling among its luminaries she met Richard Wright and Arna Bontemps . Soon her work began to find publication in increasingly more important poetry and literary journals and to win prizes, all of which brought Brooks to the attention of a wider national audience. In 1943 the Midwestern Writers’ Conference awarded her its prestigious...

Icelandic Sagas

Icelandic Sagas   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,965 words
Illustration(s):
1

...landscape. Icelandic Sagas. This page from a fourteenth-century manuscript collection of Icelandic sagas illustrates the saga of Olaf Tryggvason and shows some of his legendary exploits in killing a wild boar and a female sea monster. Werner Forman / Art Resource, NY / Stofhun Arna Magnussonoar a Islandi, Reykjavik The Vínland sagas come from a lively literary milieu and were probably first written in the early thirteenth century even though they are preserved only in later manuscripts, the Saga of Eric the Red (in two vellum manuscripts: Hauksbók , from...

Fisk University

Fisk University   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,829 words

...in every generation since the university's beginnings. Both Du Bois and Booker T. Washington served on Fisk's board of trustees. The renowned artist Aaron Douglas taught at Fisk for several years. Among other faculty members who became great American literary figures are Arna Bontemps , Sterling A. Brown , Robert Hayden , and James Weldon Johnson . Another faculty member, St. Elmo Brady , was one of the first African Americans to achieve eminence in chemistry. Other alumni include the first African American U.S. Supreme Court justice Thurgood...

Wright, Richard

Wright, Richard (b. 4 September 1908)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,572 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University Robert Bone assumes that Wright was the leader of what he calls the Chicago Renaissance of the 1930s and 1940s, when black writers did not just produce work but came together to discuss their roles and responsibilities as black writers. Arna Bontemps, for instance, arrived in Chicago in 1935 , where he met Wright, who was then working on the Illinois Writers’ Project with his WPA job. Wright was publishing his first poems, writing short stories, and organizing the left-wing writers under the rubric of the cultural...

Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,723 words
Illustration(s):
2

...key figures in the late 1920s and the early 1930s. Charles S. Johnson moved south in 1931 , as did James Weldon Johnson , and Du Bois followed in 1934 . Hughes left Harlem in 1931 and did not return permanently until World War II. Brown, Douglas, and the poet and author Arna Bontemps shifted their bases of operations to black universities in the 1930s. The writers Fisher and Thurman died in 1934 , and James Weldon Johnson died four years later. Many of the rest stopped writing. Cullen took a full-time job teaching school in 1934 ; most of his...

Crisis, The: A Record Of The Darker Races

Crisis, The: A Record Of The Darker Races   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
1

...its political radicalism, The Crisis became equally noted for its literary contributions. In 1919 Jessie Redmon Fauset became the literary editor. She published and gave initial public exposure to many of the young writers of what became the Harlem Renaissance , including Arna Bontemps , Langston Hughes , Countée Cullen , Zora Neale Hurston , and Jean Toomer . Financial support for creative writers came as well through the form of literary prizes. Photographs and works of art by leading black artists—some as stunning covers for the magazine—appeared...

Intellectuals

Intellectuals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,332 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as opposed to functioning as race leaders continued in the 1960s and through the twentieth century—for example, from the black social critic Harold Cruse in his 1967 work The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual . Intellectuals at Fisk University. Charles S. Johnson ( left ) with Arna Bontemps ( right ). Photographs and Prints Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations Intellectual Venues. The role of black conservatism gained particular attention within black intellectual circles...

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