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camber

Subject: History

1 The athwartships curve of a ship's deck, usually giving a fall towards the sides of a quarter of an inch (6.35 mm) to each foot (30.5 cm). 2 A small ...

camber

camber   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... A slight upward curvature of a surface, such as a cross-section of a highway, or in structural members (e.g. camber beams ) to resist dead and imposed loads, such that the beam sits flat and prevents sag in...

pre-camber

pre-camber   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...camber A beam that has an unloaded upward deflection so that when loaded it avoids the appearance of...

cambering

cambering   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... Consistent dip of strata towards local valley floors, in conflict with the general regional dip. It is well displayed in the English Midlands, where ironstone beds above clays are cambered down as much as 30 m below their original level. It is probably due to large-scale structural disturbance when permafrost thawed and when the plastic clays allowed overlying massive beds to flow towards...

cambering

cambering   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The consistent dip of strata towards valley centres, in conflict with the general regional dip. It is well displayed in the English Midlands, where ironstone beds above clays are cambered down as much as 30 m below their original level. It is probably due to large-scale structural disturbance when permafrost thawed and the plastic clays allowed overlying massive beds to flow towards...

cambering

cambering  

The consistent dip of strata towards valley centres, in conflict with the general regional dip. It is well displayed in the English Midlands, where ironstone beds above clays are cambered down as ...
crown

crown   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...1. The upper-most part of a building. 2. The middle of a cambered...

plain tile

plain tile   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...tile A small rectangular roofing tile, usually clay or concrete, that has a slight camber...

hogging

hogging   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...A cambered surface, a beam that bends upwards towards its...

high solidity wind turbine

high solidity wind turbine   Quick reference

A Supplementary Dictionary of Renewable Energy and Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...solidity wind turbine A horizontal axis wind turbine that has many solid blades and so appears to be virtually a solid disc. The blades are usually of a slightly cambered sheet metal construction. The turbines are used for pumping water on farms. Compare low solidity wind turbine...

gull

gull   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...A tension fracture that develops when a competent rock that overlies incompetent material experiences extension due to gravitational sliding along the bedding, widening joints . Surface material often fills gulls. Small-scale cambering often causes gulling behind cliff tops where blocks have toppled over the edge, producing gulls that are wide at the top and narrow at the bottom. http://www.ubss.org.uk/resources/proceedings/vol17/UBSS_Proc_17_2_153-174.pdf Describes two gull caves from the Wiltshire and Avon...

runner's knee

runner's knee   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
158 words

...knee is usually on the inner or outer border of the kneecap. The condition is now thought to be a form of patellofemoral pain syndrome . The term runner's knee has also been applied to the pain on the outside of the knee associated with iliotibial band syndrome . Running on cambered roads and excessive pronation increase the risk of suffering from painful...

iliotibial band friction syndrome

iliotibial band friction syndrome   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
154 words

...against the outer part of the knee joint. It is often associated with an overtight iliotibial band commonly found in patients with anatomical abnormalities, such as genu varum (bow legs). It is also common in long-distance runners who overpronate the foot and who run on heavily cambered roads. The syndrome is characterized by pain and tightness on the outside of the knee when running downhill or walking downstairs. The pain usually subsides when activity stops ( see Noble test , Ober's test ). Iliotibial band friction syndrome can be notoriously difficult to...

aerofoil

aerofoil   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Engineering and Technology
Length:
188 words
Illustration(s):
1

...gives rise to lower pressures on one surface ( suction surface ) compared with the other ( pressure surface ) when moving through a fluid. The leading edge is the front part of an aerofoil about which an oncoming flow divides, while the trailing edge is the rear edge. The camber line is a curve constructed midway between the upper and lower surfaces of an aerofoil, while the chord line ( chord ) is a straight line between the leading and trailing edges, the length of which is termed the chord length . The angle of attack ( α ‎ ) is the angle...

hill-slope creep

hill-slope creep   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
576 words
Illustration(s):
1

...density of the regolith or rock layer, and the angle of slope. Where all these are moderate to high, overburden pressure from overlying strata (caprock) or constructions (walls, power poles, buildings, etc.) can readily induce creep. This in turn may lead to the slumping or cambering of the slope, the bulging of valley sides, and the downslope curvature of surficial strata. Creep is often referred to as ‘soil creep’, but strictly this refers to two distinct mechanisms that primarily operate within a regolith environment, although they may also affect loose...

aeronautics

aeronautics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,173 words

...flat plate at different angles of attack using a whirling-arm device in the early nineteenth century. Later, Francis Wenham and Horatio Phillips in Britain constructed a wind tunnel, measured the lift and drag of a wing-shaped body, and demonstrated the better performance of cambered wings and the preference of a small angle of attack to obtain a better lift and drag ratio. The German Otto Lilienthal systematically measured the lift and drag of wings, and graphically represented the results for his own design of bird-shaped gliders, before falling to his...

periglacial landscapes

periglacial landscapes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,382 words
Illustration(s):
4

...erosion of ice-rich permafrost. The creep in situ of permafrost, especially as it thaws, may also cause large-scale deformation structures in sedimentary strata. These include uparching beneath valley bottoms (valley bulging) and bending, deformation, and sliding on slopes (cambering and joint widening, or ‘gull’ formation). These structures are known to occur in middle latitudes where formerly frozen, fine-grained (i.e. ice-rich) strata are overlain by more coherent (i.e. less ice-rich) beds. Fig. 2. A tundra landscape of the Low Arctic, Sachs River...

runner's knee

runner's knee   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the lower end of the thigh bone. This injury has the much more impressive medical name of ‘iliotibial band friction syndrome’. It usually occurs in runners who have been running for less than 4 years and who regularly run more than 10 miles (about 16 km) per week. Running on cambered roads and excessive pronation increases the risk of suffering this condition. Treatment includes static stretching exercises of the iliotibial...

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