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Barry Jackson

(1879–1961) English director and manager. Trained as an architect, Jackson was heir to a fortune derived from one of the leading grocery firms in the Midlands. In 1907 he founded ...

deterrence

deterrence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
N.the prevention from action by fear of the consequences. Deterrence is a state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction.
War of 1812

War of 1812  

(1812–15)A war between Britain and the USA. US frustration at the trade restrictions imposed by Britain in retaliation for Napoleon's Continental System, together with a desire to remove British and ...
Nuclear Weapons, Threats of

Nuclear Weapons, Threats of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,869 words

...form of deterrence. [ See also Cold War , subentry on Conflicts (1947–1987) ; Cuban Missile Crisis ; and Nuclear Policies and Security ] Bibliography Betts, Richard K . Nuclear Blackmail and Nuclear Balance. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1987. Blechman, Barry M ., and Douglas M. Hart . The Political Utility of Nuclear Weapons: The 1973 Middle East Crisis. In Nuclear Diplomacy and Crisis Management , edited by Sean M. Lynn-Jones , et al, pp. 323–347. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990. Bundy, McGeorge . Danger and Survival . New...

Responsibility in Health and Risk Messaging

Responsibility in Health and Risk Messaging   Reference library

Amber K. Worthington

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
12,244 words

...regulatory support by emphasizing strongly held American values (e.g., personal responsibility, threat of big government) that resonate with the public ( Barry, Niederdeppe, & Gollust, 2013 ). These “anti-policy” framed messages then compete with messages distributed by health organizations that attempt to raise support for health policy changes. For example, Niederdeppe, Gollust, and Barry ( 2014 ) include two anti-tax messages about sugar-sweetened beverages; the first describes a proposed sugar-sweetened beverage tax as an arbitrary target as...

The (In)visibility of Race in 20th-Century Crime Films

The (In)visibility of Race in 20th-Century Crime Films   Reference library

Taunya Lovell Banks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...films, highlights the racial discrimination black soldiers experienced in the military during and after World War II. The second film, Action Jackson ( 1988 ), is reminiscent of blaxploitation films. It stars African American actor Carl Weathers as Sgt. Jericho “Action” Jackson, but unlike most blaxpoitation films, the cast includes a mix of white and nonwhite, primarily black, characters. Tellingly, Jericho Jackson, a Harvard law graduate, is employed as a tough Detroit police officer. The combination of his elite academic credentials and non-lawyer job...

Security, International

Security, International   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
5,759 words

...Security Studies: Stephen Walt and His Critics , Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000. Buckley, Mary , and Robert Singh , eds. The Bush Doctrine and the War on Terrorism . London and New York: Routledge, 2006. Buzan, Barry , Ole Waever , and Jaap de Wilde , eds. Security: A New Framework for Analysis . London: Lynne Rienner, 1998. Buzan, Barry . People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post–Cold War Era. Hemel Hempstead, U.K.: Wheatsheaf, 1983. [The second edition was published in 1991.] Collins, Alan , ed. ...

Narcissism as a Consideration When Designing Health and Risk Messages

Narcissism as a Consideration When Designing Health and Risk Messages   Reference library

Erin M. Hill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
14,149 words

...sources (e.g., parental recognition, admiration from others). Further, poor parental monitoring may play a key role in the development of narcissism ( Horton et al., 2006 ; Mechanic & Barry, 2015 ; Wetzel & Robins, 2016 ). That is, lack of parental control or inconsistent parenting may lead to a disorganized sense of self or inflated self-importance ( Mechanic & Barry, 2015 ), which, in turn, facilitates the development of narcissism. Recent research has begun to look more deeply at the facets narcissism; some research suggests that the...

Health Literacy and Health/Risk Communication

Health Literacy and Health/Risk Communication   Reference library

Michael Mackert, Sara Champlin, and Jisoo Ahn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,142 words

..., 38–42. Davis, T. C. , Arnold, C. , Berkel, H. J. , Nandy, I. , Jackson, R. H. , & Glass, J. (1996). Knowledge and attitude on screening mammography among low-literate, low-income women. Cancer , 78 , 1912–1920. Davis, T. C. , Crouch, M. A. , Long, S. W. , Jackson, R. H. , Bates, P. , George, R. B. , & Bairnsfather, L. E. (1991). Rapid assessment of literacy levels of adult primary care patients. Family Medicine , 23 , 433–435. Davis, T. C. , Long, S. W. , Jackson, R. H. , Mayeaux, E. J. , George, R. B. , Murphy, P. W. , & Crouch,...

Distributed Leadership

Distributed Leadership   Reference library

Howard Youngs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,449 words

...because a formal organization requires the informal organization in order to operate ( Barnard, 1938 ). One of the first categorizations of distributed leadership divided into three forms: delegated leadership, co-leadership, and, peer leadership ( House & Aditya, 1997 ). Barry ( 1991 ) also used the term distributed leadership to describe emergent social leadership and boundary-spanning leadership in self-managing teams, with the latter being replicated in Sheard and Kakabadse’s ( 2002 ) research study of team development. A forerunner case study of...

Experimental Design in the Study of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Experimental Design in the Study of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture   Reference library

Cara E. Rabe-Hemp and John C. Navarro

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,391 words

...of research methods for criminal justice and criminology (4th ed.). Boston: Cengage. McGinty, E. E. , Webster, D. W. , & Barry, C. L. (2013). Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170 , 494–501. Nyberg, A. (1998). Seal of approval: The history of the comics code . Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. Pelizzon, V. , West, P. , & Martha, N. (2010) Tabloid, Inc.: Crimes, newspapers, narratives...

Mentoring Across Teacher Career Stages

Mentoring Across Teacher Career Stages   Reference library

Beverly J. Irby, Nahed Abdelrahman, and Rafael Lara-Alecio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Educational Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
18,308 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and the mentee ( Gagen & Bowie, 2005 ; Hammer, & Williams, 2005 ; Jackson, 2008 ; Petrin, 2014 ; Rogers, 2009 ; Slabodnik-Rivas, 2010 ; Snowden, 2000 ; Taylor, 2018 ; Whitmore, 2009 ). Regular access to the mentor helps mentees to gain valuable insight on time and provides creative ideas ( Benson, 2008 ; Huling, Resta, & Yeargain, 2012 ). Dyad meetings need to be collaborative in order to help the mentor and the mentee build respectful and productive relationships ( Jackson, 2008 ; Petrin, 2014 ; Rogers, 2009 ; Slabodnik-Rivas, 2010 ;...

Juries in Film and Television

Juries in Film and Television   Reference library

Nancy S. Marder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,302 words

...McFaul, R. & Schumer, A. (Directors). (2015). 12 angry men inside Amy Schumer [Television series episode]. In S. Ast (Executive Producer). Inside Amy Schumer . United States: Comedy Central. Simon, R. (1992). Jury nullification, or prejudice and ignorance in the Marion Barry trial. Journal of Criminal Justice, 20 , 261–266. Thaman, S. C. (2007). The good, the bad, or the indifferent: 12 angry men in Russia. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 82 , 791–808. Vidmar, N. , Beale, S. S. , Chemerinsky, E. , & Coleman, J. E. (2007). Was he guilty as charged...

Criminal Underworlds

Criminal Underworlds   Reference library

Heather Shore

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,921 words

...innovative and progressive in its depiction of both criminal lives but also ethnic minorities. As Gavin Schaffer notes, “The story orientated around turf battles between black, Asian, and white gangs, each of which included their share of wrongdoers” ( 2014 , p. 252). Producer Barry Hanson saw the drama as very much a departure from typical BBC drama of the period: “Its cue came from contemporary American urban crime movies.” It was certainly a slice of urban realism, notable for its location sequences of Birmingham, as well as its acknowledgement of...

Government-Driven Incentives to Improve Health

Government-Driven Incentives to Improve Health   Reference library

Peter Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
20,376 words
Illustration(s):
1

...clinical changes and a synthesis. Public Health , 132 , 24–32. McDaniel, P. A. , Smith, E. A. , & Malone, R. E. (2015). The tobacco endgame: A qualitative review and synthesis . Tobacco Control , 25 , 594–604. McGinty, E. E. , Goldman, H. H. , Pescosolido, B. , & Barry, C. L. (2015). Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: Effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Social Science and Medicine , 126 , 73–85. McGirr, L. (2016). The war on alcohol . New York: W. W. Norton. McLaren, L...

English School

English School   Quick reference

Adrian Gallagher

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
589 words

...who first referred to ‘the English School’, and the label has stuck. Nowadays, the English School reflects a broad intellectual movement carried forward by the works of contemporary scholars such as Andrew Linklater, Adrian Gallagher, Barry Buzan, Chris Reus-Smit, Cornelia Navari, Edward Keene, Richard Little, Robert Jackson, Jason Ralph, John Williams, Hidemi Sugunami, William Bain, and Matthew S. Weinert, to name just a few. This movement remains distinct for a number of reasons. First, at the heart of the English School lies the idea that states form a...

Bretton Woods System

Bretton Woods System   Reference library

Frank J. Garcia

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,106 words

...In Global Institutions and Responsibilities: Achieving Global Justice, edited by Christian Barry , and Thomas Pogge , pp. 90–123. (Oxford, U.K., 2005). Lastra, R. M. “The International Monetary Fund in Historical Perspective.” Journal of International Economic Law 3, no. 3 (2000): 507–512. Reddy, Sanjay G. “Just International Monetary Arrangements.” In Global Institutions and Responsibilities: Achieving Global Justice, edited by Christian Barry and Thomas Pogge , pp. 218–235. (Oxford, U.K., 2005). Sachs, Jeffrey . The End of Poverty: Economic...

Strengths Perspective

Strengths Perspective   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... 2006 ). One of the earliest and most studied applications of the strengths perspective is with case managers working with adults having psychiatric disabilities. Rapp and Goscha ( 2006 ) summarize nine studies (Barry, Zeber, Blow, & Valenstein, 2003 ; Kisthardt, 1993 ; Macias, Farley, Jackson, & Kinney, 1997 ; Macias, Kinney, Farley, Jackson, & Vos, 1994 ; Modrcin, Rapp, & Poertner, 1988 ; Rapp & Chamberlain, 1985 ; Rapp & Wintersteen, 1989 ; Ryan, Sherman, & Judd, 1994 ; Stanard, 1999 ) that examined the effectiveness of the strengths-based case...

The English School: History and Primary Institutions as Empirical IR Theory?

The English School: History and Primary Institutions as Empirical IR Theory?   Reference library

Barry Buzan and George Lawson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,037 words

...of international society . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jackson, P. (2010). The conduct of inquiry in international relations . London: Routledge. Jackson, R. (2009). International relations as a craft discipline. In C. Navari (Ed.), Theorising international society: English School methods (pp. 21–38). Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave. Jackson, R. H. (1992). Pluralism in international political theory. Review of International Studies , 18 (3), 271–281. Jackson, R. H. (1996). Is there a classical international theory? In S. Smith ,...

Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to consolidations . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Barry, B. W. (1997). Strategic planning workbook for nonprofit organizations . St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation. Bryson, J. M. (2004). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Eadie, D. C. (2006). Planning and managing strategically. In R. L. Edwards & J. A. Yankey (Eds.), Effectively managing nonprofit organizations (chap. 17, pp. 375–390). Washington, DC: NASW Press. Jackson, P. M. (2007). Nonprofit strategic planning:...

Population Aging and International Conflict

Population Aging and International Conflict   Reference library

Mark L. Haas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,482 words

...military ties. The New York Times , A5. Hudson, V. , & den Boer, A. (2004). Bare branches: The security implications of Asia’s surplus male population . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackson, R. , & Howe, N. (2008). The graying of the great powers: Demography and geopolitics in the 21st century . Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. Jackson, R. , Howe, N. , & Peter, R. (2013). The global aging preparedness index (2d ed.) Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. Kaufmann, E. (2014). “It’s the demography...

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