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Dictionary of Physics 8e companion website

Here is a list of recommended web links to accompany this Dictionary.

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Z

A  Top

accelerator
http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/accelerator_list.html
A list of world particle accelerators and accelerator laboratories, with links, from the ELSA website at the University of Bonn

acoustics
http://acousticalsociety.org/
The website of the Acoustical Society of America
http://www.ioa.org.uk/
The website of the UK Institute of Acoustics

activation analysis
http://archaeometry.missouri.edu/naa_overview.html
An overview of neutron activation analysis from the Archaeometry Laboratory, Missouri Research Reactor

ANSI
https://www.ansi.org/
The ANSI home page

Aspect experiment
http://www.drchinese.com/David/Aspect.pdf
The original 1982 paper in Physical Review Letters

atomic force microscopy
https://www.nanoscience.com/technology/afm-technology/
An overview of the technique from Nanoscience Instruments, Inc.

 

B  Top

Bell’s theorem
http://www.drchinese.com/David/Bell.pdf
The original 1964 paper in Physics

biophysics
http://www.biophysics.org/
The website of the Biophysical Society

black hole
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/home.html
A NASA website with information about black holes

Boyle, Robert
http://www.bbk.ac.uk/boyle/
The Robert Boyle project at Birkbeck College, London

Brownian motion
http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Brown-1829.html
A transcript of part of Robert Brown’s original 1829 paper

 

c  Top

CERN
https://home.cern/
The CERN public website

close packing
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CubicClosePacking.html
An interactive demonstration of cubic close-packing
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HexagonalClosePacking.html
An interactive demonstration of hexagonal close packing

COBE
https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe/
The NASA website for the COBE project

Compton effect
https://history.aip.org/history/exhibits/gap/Compton/01_Compton.html
Compton’s original 1923 paper in The Physical Review

conductivity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_3/2_3_7.html
Values of thermal conductivity for a range of materials at the NPL

cosmology
https://cosmology.caltech.edu/
The home page of the Caltech Observational Cosmology Group
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/cos_home.html
A cosmology website run by the University of Cambridge

crystal lattice
http://www.dawgsdk.org/crystal/index.en
Interactive 3D crystal models

cubic crystal
http://www.chemtube3d.com/solidstate/_simplecubic(final).htm
An interactive version of a simple cubic crystal
http://www.chemtube3d.com/solidstate/_bcc(final).htm
An interactive version of a body-centred cubic crystal
http://www.chemtube3d.com/solidstate/_ccp(final).htm
An interactive version of a face-centred cubic crystal

Curie, Marie
https://history.aip.org/history/exhibits/curie/
A comprehensive website about her life and work run by the American Institute of Physics Center for History of Physics

cyclotron
https://www.youtube.com/user/nsclmedia
The US National Superconducting Cyclotron Society’s You Tube channel

 

D  Top

dark matter
http://cdms.berkeley.edu/
The home page of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

decay
https://www.nist.gov/pml/radionuclide-half-life-measurements
Values of radionuclide half-lives at the NIST website

density
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_1.html
Values of densities of commonly used materials at the NPL website

Dulong and Petit’s law
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/petit.html
A translation of the original 1819 paper in Annals of Philosophy

 

E  Top

Einstein, Albert
https://history.aip.org/history/exhibits/einstein/
A comprehensive website about his life and work run by the American Institute of Physics Center for History of Physics

electrolysis
http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Faraday-electrochem.html
Faraday’s 1834 paper on electrical decomposition from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

electron microscope
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/electronmicroscopy/magnify1/index.html
A tutorial featuring virtual scanning electron microscopy, created by the Optical Microscopy Division of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

entropy
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~GIUNTA/clausius.html
Translations of papers by Clausius on entropy (1850) and the second law (1865), published in Annalen der Physik und Chemie

EPR experiment
http://www.drchinese.com/David/EPR.pdf
The original 1935 paper in Physical Review

expansivity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_3/2_3_5.html
Values of the expansivity of selected liquids and solids at the NPL website

 

F  Top

fibre optics
https://arcelect.com/fibercable.htm
A comprehensive tutorial from Arc Electronics

fundamental constants
https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/
Values of fundamental physical constants from NIST

 

G  Top

geodetic effect
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/gpb/index.html
The home page of NASA’s Gravity Probe B experiment to investigate the geodetic effect

geomagnetism
https://geomag.usgs.gov/
The website of the USGS National Geomagnetism Program
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_7/2_7_6.html
Geomagnetic data at the NPL website

global positioning system
https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/faq/gps/
FAQ covering the global positioning system provided by the US Federal Aviation Administration

gravitational waves
https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/
The home page for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

gravity
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/jpl/missions/grace.html
The home page of the NASA/JPL Gravity Recovery and Climate experiment to make precise measurements of the earth’s gravitational field

 

H  Top

Hubble Space Telescope
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html
The home page of the Hubble Space Telescope

hydrogen spectrum
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/balmer.html
A translation of Balmer’s 1885 paper on the spectral lines of hydrogen in Annalen der Physik und Chemie

 

I  Top

ionization chamber
https://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/ionEnergy.html
Values for ionization energies of neutral atoms at the NIST website

isotope
https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/Compositions/stand_alone.pl
Isotopic compositions at the NIST website

IUPAC
https://iupac.org/
The IUPAC home page

IUPAP
http://iupap.org/
The IUPAP home page

 

J  Top

JET
https://www.euro-fusion.org/devices/jet/
JET section of the EUROfusion website

 

L  Top

Large Hadron Collider
https://home.cern/topics/large-hadron-collider
The Large Hadron Collider home page at CERN

Lense–Thirring effect
https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/gpb/index.html
The home page of NASA’s Gravity Probe B experiment to investigate frame dragging

Lissajous figures
https://nationalmaglab.org/education/magnet-academy/watch-play/interactive/lissajous-figures-on-an-oscilloscope
An interactive simulation of an oscilloscope producing Lissajous figures from the University of Florida

 

M  Top

magnetism
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_6.html
Values for the magnetic properties of materials at the NPL website

mass spectroscopy
http://www.astbury.leeds.ac.uk/facil/MStut/mstutorial.htm
An introduction to mass spectrometry by Alison Ashcroft, University of Leeds

Michelson-Morley experiment
https://history.aip.org/history/exhibits/gap/Michelson/01_Michelson.html
The original 1887 paper in The American Journal of Science

Millikan oil-drop experiment
https://history.aip.org/history/exhibits/gap/Millikan/Millikan.html#millikan1
One of Millikan’s original papers (1911) in Physical Review

 

N  Top

neutrino
http://neutrino.phys.washington.edu/~superk/
The US website for the Super-Kamiokande neutrino observatory

neutron
https://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/chadwick/index.html
Chadwick’s 1932 letter to Nature on the discovery of the neutron
http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsa/136/830/692.full.pdf
Chadwick’s 1932 paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society

Nomarski microscope
https://www.olympus-lifescience.com/en/microscope-resource/primer/techniques/dic/dicoverview/
An overview of Nomarski microscopy with an interactive tutorial, from the Olympus Microscopy Resource Center

NSOM
http://www.eng.utah.edu/~lzang/images/Lecture_16_NSOM.pdf
An account of the technique

nuclear fission
https://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/meitner/index.html
Meitner and Frisch’s original paper (1939) in Nature on induced fission

nuclear fusion
http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Rutherford-1934b/Rutherford-1934b.html
Rutherford’s 1934 paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society

nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/inside.htm
A comprehensive online textbook covering all aspects of magnetic resonance imaging

nuclear reactor
http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/nuclear-power-reactors.aspx
The website of the World Nuclear Association, an association of companies in the nuclear industry

nuclide
http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/index.jsp
An interactive chart giving detailed information on all nuclides, from the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory

 

O  Top

ozone layer
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/sc_fact.html
Description of the ozone layer, its depletion, and steps to protect it, produced by the US Environmental Protection Agency

 

P  Top

periodic table
https://www.webelements.com/
The WebElements table, produced by Mark Winter at the University of Sheffield
http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php
Over fifty different forms of the periodic table in the Chemogenesis web book by Mark R. Leach

photometry
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_5/2_5_3.html
Photometric data available at the NPL website

 

Q  Top

quantum computing
https://www.wired.com/2014/05/quantum-computing/
Article on the history of research into quantum computing

 

R  Top

Raman effect
http://www.uky.edu/~holler/raman.html
The original paper in Nature (1928) by Raman and Krishnan

Raoult’s law
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/raoult2.html
Raoult’s original paper in Comptes Rendus (1887)

relative atomic mass
https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/Compositions/stand_alone.pl
Values of r.a.m. at the NIST website

resistivity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_1.html
Values of resistivity for a range of materials at the NPL website

 

S  Top

scanning probe microscopy
https://www.mobot.org/jwcross/spm/
Overview of scanning probe microscopy techniques

scanning tunnelling microscopy
http://www.iap.tuwien.ac.at/www/surface/stm_gallery/stm_schematic
An account of the technique with a gallery of images

seismology
http://www.bgs.ac.uk/schoolSeismology/schoolSeismology.cfc?method=viewLatestQuake
The British Geological Survey’s school seismology project

solar system
https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?bodies
Data for the solar system from NASA/JPL

specific heat capacity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_3/2_3_6.html
Values of specific heat capacity for a range of gases, liquids, and solids

spectroscopy
https://www.nist.gov/pml/atomic-spectra-database
The NIST atomic-spectra database
https://www.nist.gov/pml/handbook-basic-atomic-spectroscopic-data
Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data
http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Kirchhoff-Bunsen-1860.html
Original paper on spectroscopy by Kirchoff and Bunsen in Annalen der Physik und der Chemie (1860)

superconductivity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_4.html
Properties of superconducting elements at the NPL website

surface tension
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_5.html
Values of surface tension at the NPL website

synchrotron radiation
http://als.lbl.gov/
Website of the Advanced Light Source facility at Berkeley
http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Home.html
Website of the Diamond Light Source at Harwell

 

T  Top

thermodynamics
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch21/chemical.php
A tutorial from the Division of Chemical Education, Purdue University, Indiana
http://www.codata.info/resources/databases/key1.html
Thermodynamic properties established by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology

 

U  Top

Unicode
http://www.unicode.org
The Unicode Consortium home page

 

V  Top

viscosity
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_2/2_2_3.html
Values of viscosities of liquids at the NPL website

 

W  Top

WMAP
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/
The NASA site for WMAP

work function
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Tables/photoelec.html
Values given on Carl Nave’s HyperPhysics site at Georgia State University

 

X  Top

X-ray crystallography
http://www-structmed.cimr.cam.ac.uk/Course/Overview/Overview.html
An illustrated introduction to the principles of X-ray crystallography, compiled by Randy Read, University of Cambridge

 

Z  Top

Zeeman effect
https://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/zeeman/index.html
Pieter Zeeman’s paper in Nature (1897)