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Describing the seamless integration between the local and global; the comprehensive connectedness produced by travel, business, and communications; willingness and ability to think globally and act locally. ‘The concept of glocalization captures the dynamic, contingent, and two-way dialectic between the global and the local’ (Swyngedouw (2004) Camb. Rev. Int. Affairs 17). Brown et al. (2007) GaWC Res. Bull. 236 show that demand for financial service intermediaries is concentrated in firms operating both at a global and a local scale.

Parnreiter et al. (2005) Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 147 attribute the preference for ‘glocal’ financial institutions to using relatively local banks with sufficient global experience to operate in major financial markets, and to so-called ‘soft’ factors, such as the initiation of business deals, and an in-depth analysis of the company that sets out to issue bonds or shares. ‘Entrepreneurial cities represent key regulatory arenas in which new “glocalized” geographies of national state power are being consolidated…the hallmark of glocalizing states is the project of reconcentrating the capacities for economic development within strategic subnational sites such as cities, city-regions and industrial districts, which are in turn to be positioned strategically within global and European economic flows’ (Brenner in J. Peck and H. W. Yeung, eds 2003). See also Cox (2004) TIBG 29, 2. Bliss (2005) NZ Geogr. 61, 3 argues that responsible glocal citizenship makes for a better world.

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