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An area of poor housing, characterized by multi-occupance and overcrowding; see McFarlane (2008) Env. & Plan. A 40, 1 on sanitation in Mumbai's informal settlements. Rao (2006) Int. J. Urb. & Reg. Res. 30, 1 rails against the use of ‘slum’ as shorthand for ‘the distortion of urban substance into a dysfunctional stage for violence, conflict, and the iniquitous distribution of resources’. Durch et al. (1998) Cities 15, 4 review housing policies implemented in Mumbai; from slum clearance and the construction of high-rise apartment blocks to a range of self-help strategies and privatized market-led schemes. Slum clearance is the demolition of substandard housing, usually accompanied by rehabilitation and redevelopment. At the time of writing, history's most ambitious slum-clearance project is nearing completion, with the elimination of Dharavi, a Mumbai slum that houses between 600 000 and a million people.

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