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John Kourkouas (b. c. 895)

John I Tzimiskes (c. 925—976)


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Sayf al-Dawla

(d. 967)

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(d. 967)

Hamdanid ruler of Aleppo (r. 945–67). Famed for the illustrious scholars of his court and his fearless battles against Byzantine aggressions on Muslim frontiers. His military successes were modest but noticeable in a fragmented caliphate unable to mount a viable defense. They became legendary in the poems of his panegyrist, al-Mutanabbi, who found in him the ideal qualities of a pre-Islamic Arab nobleman.

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