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1 A detached mass of construction, generally acting as a support, such as the solid part of a wall between two openings, or a massive element from which arches spring, as in a bridge.

2 Support, such as a pier in a repetitive medieval nave-arcade varying from sturdy, oversized Romanesque examples to the lighter, taller, more slender, multimoulded Perpendicular types. Piers are therefore very much more massive than columns.

3 Vertical formation in brickwork on the face of a flint or rag-stone wall, serving to strengthen it.

4 Stone, concrete, metal-work, or timber construction jutting out into the sea or other water as a break-water, landing-stage, or promenade.

5 Jetty or wharf.

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