The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.

Related Content

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Law


Show Summary Details



Quick Reference

A punishment for a crime. A penalty must be clearly stated before it can be enforced. Article 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights forbids the use of retrospective criminal penalties, and this prohibition is now part of UK law as a consequence of the Human Rights Act 1998.

Subjects: Law

Reference entries