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The science or art of teaching. Some sociologists of education use the term ‘pedagogical practices’ with reference to the methods and principles that inform educational techniques, and make a distinction between the expressed pedagogy (which the teacher purports to use), and his or her observed pedagogy in practice. The former may be liberal (or ‘progressive’), emphasizing the needs and autonomy of the individual child, whereas the latter may be conservative (aimed at preserving the authority and expertise of the teacher as a professional). This distinction is therefore analogous to that between the formal and hidden curriculum.

Subjects: Social sciencesEducation

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