(b. 23 Sept. 1890, d. 1 Feb. 1957).
German field marshal
In January 1942 he became commander of the 6th Army, with which he took the city of Stalingrad in November 1942. He was encircled by the Red Army, however, and following Hitler's orders he refused to break out or capitulate for as long as possible. Nevertheless, owing to heavy losses he surrendered on 31 January 1943 and became a Soviet prisoner of war until 1953. He spent the last years of his life in East Germany.