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View of historical progression as a series of stages, reflecting intellectual, technological, economic, and political development. The view is associated with the Marxist doctrine of historical materialism, in its depiction of socio‐economic synthesis, but also more broadly with approaches which view progress in terms of particular paths of transition. The association of modernization with a particularly Western model of development (and a Whig interpretation of European history) has led to the charge of eurocentrism, and a denial of a neat dichotomy between the traditional and the modern in understanding political and socio‐economic progress.

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