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Raymond Laurel Lindeman


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An American ecologist whose research, mainly into the energy and nutrient balance in Cedar Bog Lake, Minnesota, explored the linkages between nutrient cycling, productivity, energy flow, and nutrient utilization laid the foundation for ecosystem studies. He published only six papers, but these included ‘The Trophic-Dynamic Concept in Ecology’ (Ecology, 23(4): 399–417, 1942), now regarded as a classic.

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