Related Content

Related Overviews


Charles Darwin (1809—1882) naturalist, geologist, and originator of the theory of natural selection

Herbert Spencer (1820—1903) philosopher, social theorist, and sociologist

Aldous Huxley (1894—1963) writer

See all related overviews in Oxford Reference »


More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Philosophy


Show Summary Details


Peter Kropotkin

(1842—1921) anarchist and scientist

Quick Reference


Russian nobleman, and main proponent of anarchocommunism. Kropotkin believed that Darwin's theory of evolution, properly applied, showed that human beings are social creatures who flourish best in small communities cemented together by mutual aid and voluntary associations (see altruism). The centralized state with its apparatus of coercion represents a backward step, or obstacle to the implementation of this ideal. Kropotkin's works include Mutual Aid (1897) and Fields, Factories, and Workshops (1901). He lived largely in England, but died in Russia.

Subjects: Philosophy

Reference entries

View all reference entries »