Founded in 1921, it attempted to raise the class consciousness of the White proletariat before accepting Moscow's orders to work for the establishment of a multi‐racial ‘native’ republic by 1931. Its membership remained small, however, and its significance derived from its cross‐fertilization with the ANC from the 1940s, providing many of its leaders and much of its ideology. Banned in 1950, it regrouped as the clandestine South African Communist Party and together with the ANC set up an armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) in 1961. It was effectively destroyed by the security police by 1963, and subsequently was run from exile, again in close cooperation with the ANC. The alliance held after both organizations were released from their ban in 1990. While not tying the ANC to an anti‐capitalist programme, it has provided the ANC with important trade‐union support.http://www.sacp.org.za.The official home page of the South African Communist Party.