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1. the process of grouping organisms on the basis of features they have in common, or on the basis of their ancestry, or both. 2. the resulting arrangement of living things into groups as a consequence of the above process. The traditional division of living organisms into two kingdoms (Plant and Animal) dates back to Linnaeus. This was supplanted by a system of five kingdoms (Bacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals) proposed by Whittaker. An updated variant of this system is used in Classification. More recently, a seven-kingdom system has been proposed by T. Cavalier-Smith. This system retains four of the five kingdoms but splits the protists into three separate kingdoms: Archaeozoa, Protozoa, and Chromista (all of which see).

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