The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.

Related Content

Related Overviews

Annie Besant (1847—1933) theosophist and politician in India


James Thomson (1834—1882) poet and satirist

George Jacob Holyoake (1817—1906) freethinker and co-operator

See all related overviews in Oxford Reference »


More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Archaeology
  • Art & Architecture
  • Classical studies
  • History
  • Linguistics
  • Literature
  • Media studies
  • Music
  • Performing arts
  • Philosophy
  • Religion
  • Society and culture


Show Summary Details


Charles Bradlaugh

(1833—1891) politician and freethinker

Quick Reference


British social reformer. A republican and keen supporter of reform movements, he was tried, with Annie Besant, in 1877–78 for printing a pamphlet on birth control. The charge failed and contraceptives could thereafter be openly advertised.

Reference entries

View all reference entries »