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The chief port and second‐largest city of Egypt, on the Mediterranean coast, northwest of Cairo. Founded in 332 bc by Alexander the Great, after whom it is named, it became a major centre of Hellenistic and Jewish culture, with renowned libraries, and was the capital city until the Arab invasions c.641 ad. On an island off the coast was the Pharos lighthouse (3rd century bc), often considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

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