The rhetorical modes of persuasion underlying the implicit psychology of advertisements. Distinctive appeals contribute to brand positioning. For analytical purposes, ad appeals are often broadly categorized as rational (e.g. value for money) or emotional (e.g. ‘you deserve it’). This basic choice of ‘routes’ can be related to the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion in which the focus is either on argument and information or on ‘the peripheral route’ (the subtleties of connotation, symbolism and so on). Appeals may also be positive or negative, or related to hierarchical systems such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Advertising campaigns are designed around particular appeals—often encapsulated in a product slogan. See also advertising formats; appeal; ego appeals; fear appeals; guilt appeals; novelty appeals; price appeals; social acceptance appeals; utilitarian appeals.
Subjects: Media studies