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game theory

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

Simon Blackburn

game theory 

The mathematical theory of situations in which two or more players have a choice of decisions (strategies); where the outcome depends on all the strategies; and where each player has a set of preferences defined over the outcomes. See also convention, Nash equilibrium, prisoners' dilemma.

http://www.univie.ac.at/virtuallabs/ An online tutorial on game theory and its applications

http://www.gametheory.net/ A list of internet resources on game theory