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Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,315 words
Illustration(s):
3

City in Nordrhein-Westfalia, Germany. It was the birthplace and residence of Charlemagne, ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, and remained associated

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
110 words
Illustration(s):
1

(town, palace) West central German town, known for its hot springs. Aachen’s significance is linked to *Charlemagne, who created

Aachen

Aachen   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
477 words
Illustration(s):
1

Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) is situated to the north of the Eifel massif. Its hot springs were known to the Romans, who

Aachen Altar, Master of the

Aachen Altar, Master of the (fl c. 1485–1515)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

He is named after the great winged altarpiece with scenes from the Passion (c. 1510; Aachen, Domschatzkam.), painted for

Aaron

Aaron   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
146 words

(᾽Ααρών), brother of Moses and first high priest of the Israelites, plays a significant supporting role in a number of

Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia

Aaron ben Elijah of Nicomedia (1328–69)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
77 words

*Karaite jurist, biblical commentator, and philosopher. His philosophical work Etz Hayyim (‘Tree of Life’) is modelled after *Maimonides’ Guide

Aaronios

Aaronios   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
265 words
Illustration(s):
1

(᾽Ααρώνιος, ᾽Ααρών), Byz. noble family descended from the last Bulgarian tsar, John Vladislav, whose wife Maria was granted the

Abbas, al-

Abbas, al- (c.567–c.653)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
50 words

*Muhammad’s uncle; a merchant who accepted Islam and joined in the conquest of *Mecca (630). The Abbasid

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
411 words

(750–1258), ruled by a dynasty whose members were descendants of the uncle of Muḥammad, al-ʿAbbās ibn ʿAbd

Abbasids

Abbasids   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
790 words
Illustration(s):
1

The Muslim Arab dynasty of the Abbasids ruled a large part of the Islamic lands in the East from 749

Abbess

Abbess   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
611 words

A word derived from Late Latin abbatissa, in turn formed by analogy from abbas (abbot father): title of

Abbeville

Abbeville   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
69 words

Lowest point on the Somme, the city was near the English crossing point for the battle of *Crécy (1346

abbey

abbey   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
488 words

An abbey was a group of buildings occupied by a regular religious community, and was always directed, unlike a convent

Abbo of Fleury

Abbo of Fleury (c.940–1004)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
590 words

(c.940–1004)

Born in the Orléanais, Abbo was offered very young by his parents to the monastery of

Abbo of Saint-Germain

Abbo of Saint-Germain   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
193 words

(9th c.)

A strange war correspondent, Abbo, a monk of the monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, described the siege of

Abbo, St , abbot of Fleury

Abbo, St , abbot of Fleury (c.945–1004)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
106 words

A student of *Pope Silvester II, Abbo was a distinguished scholar, writing on canon *law, *hagiography, *grammar

Abbo of St-Germain-des-Prés

Abbo of St-Germain-des-Prés (921)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
74 words

Composed the Bella Parisiacae urbis, an epic describing the *Viking siege of *Paris (885–6), glossing the poem

Abbot

Abbot   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
492 words

The term abba, used to designate the superior of a religious community, means “father” and already contains in itself

Abbreviations

Abbreviations   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
211 words
Illustration(s):
1

(sometimes called compendia), found in inscriptions, papyri, and MSS, were frequently substituted for words, syllables, or the ending of words

Abbreviator

Abbreviator   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
116 words

Attested from the 13th c., the abbreviators (abreviator or breviator) were clerics in charge of drawing up minutes,

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