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Aaron, Richard Ithamar

Aaron, Richard Ithamar (1901–87)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,390 words

R. I. Aaron was born in Seven Sisters on 6 November 1901, but brought up in Ynystawe in the

abacus

abacus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
230 words

Ancient calculating instrument in which numbers and operations (especially adding) are represented by the numbers and positions of pebbles or

abandonment

abandonment   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
28 words

Term used by *existentialists to dramatize the sense of loss that comes from realizing that there is no external

abandonment

abandonment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
146 words

A rhetorical term used by existentialist philosophers such as Heidegger and Sartre to describe the absence of any sources of

Abbagnano, Nicola

Abbagnano, Nicola (1901–90)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
110 words

*existentialist. Born in Salerno, Abbagnano studied in Naples and taught at Turin. His ‘philosophy of the possible’ condemned

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood (1836–1903)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,825 words

Francis Ellingwood Abbot was born in Boston, Massachusetts on 6 November 1836. Following Boston Latin School, Abbot joined the class

Abbott, Edwin

Abbott, Edwin (1838–1926)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
596 words

Edwin Abbott was born in London on 20 December 1838 and died of influenza, having been bedridden for seven years,

Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill

Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill (1829–1913)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,266 words

Thomas Kingsmill Abbott was born in Dublin on 26 March 1829 and died there on 18 December 1913. He

Abbott, Lyman

Abbott, Lyman (1835–1922)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
607 words

Abbott Lyman was born on 18 December 1835 in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Lyman graduated from New York University with a BA

Abbt, Thomas

Abbt, Thomas (1738–66)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,731 words

Thomas Abbt was born in Ulm on 17 November 1738 and died in Bückeburg on 3 November 1766. The

‘Abd Al-Jabbar, Qadi

‘Abd Al-Jabbar, Qadi (c.325–415)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
1,197 words

‘Abd al-Jabbar b. Ahmad b. Khalil was born in Asadabad, a town in the southwest of Hamadan, probably around 325

Abderites

Abderites   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
19 words

Term for the two earliest *atomists, *Democritus and *Leucippus, both of whom came from Abdera

‘Abdu, Muhammad

‘Abdu, Muhammad (1849–1905)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
397 words

Muhammad ‘Abdu was born in 1849 in lower Egypt and received a traditional religious education at home, in Tanta and

abduction

abduction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
154 words

Abductive reasoning accepts a conclusion on the grounds that it explains the available evidence. The term was introduced by Charles

abduction

abduction   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
64 words

Term introduced by *Peirce for the process of using evidence to reach a wider conclusion, as in inference to

Abduh, Muhammad

Abduh, Muhammad (1849–1905)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
32 words

notable for attempting to reconcile Islam with elements in the modern world. His work The Theology of Unity was translated

Abel, Jakob Friedrich von

Abel, Jakob Friedrich von (1751–1829)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
646 words

Jakob Friedrich von Abel was born in Vaihingen, Württemberg on 9 May 1751 and died in Schorndorf in 1829.

Abelard, Peter

Abelard, Peter (1079–1142)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
290 words

(1079–1142).

Most widely known for his love affair with Héloïse, about which we learn a good deal

Abelard, Peter

Abelard, Peter (1079–1142)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
336 words

Born near Nantes, Abelard lived a hectic life, quite apart from the misfortune he incurred as a result of his

Abélard, Pierre

Abélard, Pierre (1049–1142)   Quick reference

Catherine Soanes

Dictionary Plus Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
70 words

He was an influential teacher and lectured in theology and dialectics in Paris. After a love affair with one of

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