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419   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A popular term in parts of West Africa that refers to scams, fraud, and confidence tricksters. Originating in Nigeria, ‘...

9/11

9/11   Reference library

Michael Cox

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,843 words

Judging the significance of any major event is never easy. Inevitably, new events come along to make what once appeared

abanakashi kuti babomba incito sha baume

abanakashi kuti babomba incito sha baume   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A Bemba phrase used in Zambia that translates as women can do what men can do, meaning that women are equal to men in a range of different contexts (jobs, leadership, business)....

Abortion

Abortion   Reference library

Dorothy E. McBride

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,946 words

The contemporary debate over abortion pertains to clashing views about the proper powers of state and federal governments to regulate

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action   Reference library

James P. Sterba

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,283 words

The first use of the phrase “affirmative action” is usually attributed to Executive Order 10925 issued by President John Kennedy

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,107 words

Modern-day Afghanistan, a landlocked state in Southwest Asia, has been a major preoccupation of American foreign policy for more

Africa–United States Relations

Africa–United States Relations   Reference library

J. Peter Pham

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,961 words

Although Africa’s contributions to the history and culture of the United States are significant in their variety and depth, it

African Americans, Contemporary Conditions

African Americans, Contemporary Conditions   Reference library

Yomi Durotoye

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,314 words

The election of Senator Barack Obama of Illinois as the forty-fourth president of the United States of America in 2008

African Americans, History

African Americans, History   Reference library

Clayborne Carson and Yomi Durotoye

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,833 words

More than 10 million people brought to the Americas as slaves from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries confronted a

Africanization

Africanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
The process of Africanizing government and society following independence, at which point colonial officials, norms, and values continued to exert considerable influence. This involved a ... More
African National Congress

African National Congress (1912– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A political movement and the current ruling party in South Africa. The South African Native National Congress (SANNC) was established in ...

African Peer Review Mechanism

African Peer Review Mechanism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A self-monitoring mechanism established by the African Union in 2003 as part of the *New Partnership for Africa’s Development...

African renaissance

African renaissance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

The idea that African people and societies are entering an era in which they will be able to resolve the challenges they face by focusing on ‘...

African socialism

African socialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A political philosophy espoused by a number of prominent African nationalist leaders—including Modibo *Keïta of Mali, Julius *Nyerere...

African solutions to African problems

African solutions to African problems   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
A phrase coined by the political economist George Ayittey. It was originally used by Ayittey in a critique of the actions of the international community in Somalia, in order to suggest ... More
African Union

African Union (2002– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
An association of fifty-five African states that have ratified or acceded to the Constitutive Act of the African Union, including every United Nations member on the continent after Morocco ... More
Africa rising

Africa rising   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
The idea that the combination of population and economic growth would lead to rapid *development and the transformation of the continent into a more powerful player in world affairs. The ... More
Afrobarometer

Afrobarometer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
The Afrobarometer is a pan-African, non-partisan research network that conducts public attitude surveys on democracy, governance, economic conditions, and related issues in Africa. By ... ... More
Afrocentrism

Afrocentrism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A philosophy, ideology, or way of thinking that focuses on African ideas and experiences that emerged in the early 1960s during the era of ...

Afrocentrist

Afrocentrist   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

A believer in, or purveyor of, *Afrocentrism.

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