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Aa Gym

Aa Gym   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

Abdullah Gymnastiar (b.1962) is an Indonesianpreacher popularly known as Aa (elder brother) Gym. Despite minimal orthodox

Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, The Royal

Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, The Royal   Reference library

Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
769 words

The Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought is an independent non-governmental institute headquartered in Amman, Jordan, whose ultimate purpose

Aaron

Aaron (1698)   Reference library

Eva Maria Siebert–Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

The first ordained Protestant Indian pastor, Aaron was the son of Chokkanathan, a well-to-do businessman. Aaron's Hindu name was

Abangan

Abangan   Reference library

William E. Shepard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
912 words

The term Abangan is applied to Javanese who identify as Muslims but do not strictly follow the prescribed Islamic practices.

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,214 words
Illustration(s):
3

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

Hugh Kennedy and Ken Burnside

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,178 words

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

Abbey, Edward

Abbey, Edward (1927–1989)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,811 words

Edward Abbey spent many seasons in the wilderness as fire lookout, back-country ranger, explorer, river rat, self-styled “follower of the

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī

ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī (1888–1966)   Reference library

Laith Saud

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
827 words

ʿAbd al-Rāziq's contribution to Islamic political thought is his most enduring, as well as ambiguous, legacy. In 1925, his

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,176 words

Muḥammad ʿAbduh (1849–1905)was an Egyptianscholar and reformer and a leading architect of Islamic modernism. Muḥammad ʿAbduh was

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad (1849–1905)   Reference library

Scott Morrison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,639 words

whose opinions and convictions were firmly based in the possibility of synthesizing Islam and modernity.

The historical, intellectual, and political

Abdülhamid II

Abdülhamid II   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

Abdülhamid II (1842–1918) was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). A profound political and economic crisis

Abdülhamid II

Abdülhamid II   Reference library

Engin Deniz Akarli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,257 words

Abdülhamid II, (1842–1918), was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). A profound political and economic crisis brought

ʿAbdullah bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Saʿūd

ʿAbdullah bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Saʿūd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

ʿAbdullah (b. 1924), the eleventh son of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz bin ʿAbd al-Rahman al-Saʿūd, was born in Riyadh to

Abdurrahman Wahid

Abdurrahman Wahid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,274 words

Elected as Indonesia's fourth president in 1999, Abdurrahman Wahid (b. 1940) is an influential Muslim intellectual leader,

Aberly, John

Aberly, John (18 September 1867)   Reference library

M. Joseph Jaya Raj

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

A missionary who made a pioneering contribution in the region of Andhra Pradesh* (AP) in India*, in

Abhishiktananda, Swami

Abhishiktananda, Swami (30 August 1910)   Reference library

George Gispert–sauch

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

Born as Henri Le Saux, Swami Abhishiktananda was the first of seven children of a devout Catholic family in

ABIM

ABIM   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,196 words

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (the Malaysian Islamic Youth Movement, ABIM) was officially registered on August 17, 1972, in Selangor state,

Ābish Khātūn bint Saʿd II

Ābish Khātūn bint Saʿd II (1260–86)   Reference library

George Lane

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
979 words

Ruler of Fārs Province, wife of Mongol prince Tash-Möngke bin Hülegü Khan. A daughter of the Salghurid dynasty whose grandfather,

Ablutions

Ablutions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
998 words
Illustration(s):
2

A practice that consists of washing, which introduces the Muslim into the state of ritual purity (ṭuhr) and

Ablutions

Ablutions   Reference library

Gabriele Tecchiato and Mark Sedgwick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,083 words

The state of ritual purity (ṭahārah) that is an essential condition for the fulfillment of many religious practices

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