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absorption cooler

absorption cooler   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
An air-source *heat pump (ASHP) that uses heat rather than electricity to drive it. In a water and lithium bromide cooler, for example, water at low pressure in an evaporator evaporates ... More
acid rain

acid rain   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

Rain containing high levels of sulphuric and nitric acid, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxides, which are emitted in the combustion of ...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
The actions taken to reduce the adverse effects of *climate change. Examples of adaptation are raising coastal defences to reduce the risk of flooding from sea-level rise; selecting crops ... More
adiabatic

adiabatic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Relating to a process in which there is no heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. It is an idealization, but often a useful simplifying assumption to make when modelling a ... More
air conditioning

air conditioning   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The process of maintaining a space at a desired temperature and humidity. Usually cooling is implied and typically this is achieved through the use of ...

air mass

air mass   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

When the optical path length L through the atmosphere for solar radiation incident at an angle θ N is such that ...

airtightness

airtightness ((building))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Airtightness is measured by the number of air changes per hour (ach) that occur when there is a differential pressure of 50 pascals between outside and inside the house. If an air volume ... More
albedo

albedo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The fraction of the Sun’s radiation reaching something—for example a cloud, or a whole planet—that is reflected. The Earth’s albedo is close to 30 per cent....

algae biofuels

algae biofuels   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Fuels derived from plant oils produced by algae, predominantly microalgae. Microalgae can produce more than 50 per cent of their dry weight as oil from their lipid content, and can be ... More
alternating current

alternating current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

An electric current that periodically flows in a conductor in one direction and then in the opposite.

alternative energy

alternative energy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Energy derived from non-fossil fuel sources. The alternative energy sources include *renewable energy sources and *nuclear energy. The term is sometimes used synonymously with renewable ... More
anaerobic digestion

anaerobic digestion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
The decomposition of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of air. Bacteria break down the organic material and produce a gas rich in methane (~65 per cent) and carbon dioxide (~35 per ... More
anthropogenic climate change

anthropogenic climate change   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

Human-induced changes to the climate, notably *global warming, caused by the emission of *greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide, from the ...

apparent temperature

apparent temperature   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
The air temperature at a reference humidity (that which has a dew point of 14°C), which feels as comfortable as the ambient air. When the ambient air’s humidity is higher than the ... More
aquifer

aquifer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
A layer of porous rock, gravel, or sand—or of a similar composition—containing water (called groundwater). Aquifers close to the surface provide huge reservoirs of rainwater that are ... More
atmospheric aerosols

atmospheric aerosols   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Tiny liquid drops or solid particles that are sufficiently small (generally <1 micron) that they remain suspended in the air—conventionally excluding clouds. Examples are volcanic aerosols ... More
aviation

aviation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

Transport by aircraft, predominantly by aeroplanes. In 2010, all forms of transport accounted for 27 per cent of global *...

baseload

baseload   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The minimum demand from customers during twenty-four hours or some other defined period.

baseload generation

baseload generation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The electricity generation required to meet the *baseload. Baseload power plants operate whenever available, because they have lower short-run ...

base temperature

base temperature ((building))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The value of the external temperature below which a building needs to be heated. For buildings in the UK that have very good insulation and a high ...

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