Aaron Reference library
was the elder brother of *Moses. After the liberation of the Jews from their bondage in Egypt (Exod. 1: 8–14: 30), and after God had appeared to Moses on Mt. Sinai, Moses established the ...
abacus Reference library
A flat block of masonry on the top of a *capital, which is the transition from the capital to the architrave. In the Doric Order (...
Abarquh Reference library
Iranian town in northern Fars province. A prosperous center in medieval times, by the 10th century it was fortified with
Abbasid Reference library
Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from
abbey Reference library
A monastery or religious community of monks or nuns, presided over by an *abbot or abbess. Normally the community began with twelve men or women, but often a newly founded community might have fewer, though a very large community might number from 100 to 200 members. The buildings are self-contained and male monasteries were often founded in desolate places (...
abbot, abbess Reference library
(Aramaic Abba, father) The superior, usually elected for life, of a community of monks or nuns of certain religious Orders, principally ...
῾Abd al-Hayy (fl. c.1374) Reference library
(fl. c.1374; d. Samarkand, 1405).
Illustrator and painter. According to the Safavid chronicler Dust
῾Abd al-Samad (b. before 1517) Reference library
(b. before 1517; fl. c.1535–1600).
Iranian miniature painter, calligrapher and courtier, active also in
῾Abdallah Khan (fl. c.1810–50) Reference library
Persian painter and architect. Trained in the apprentice system in royal workshops, he rose through
῾Abdallah Sayrafi (fl.1310–44) Reference library
(b. ?Tabriz; fl.1310–44).
Calligrapher. The son of Khwaja Mahmud Sarraf al-Tabrizi, he was a pupil of
Abedin, Zainul (18 Nov. 1914) Reference library
(b. Kishorganj, East Pakistan [now Bangladesh], 18 Nov. 1914; d. Dhaka, 28 May 1976).
Abel Reference library
was the second son of *Adam and Eve and was a shepherd, unlike his elder brother Cain, who was a tiller of the soil. Abel's offering of lambs as a sacrifice to God was accepted and Cain's, of the fruits of the earth, rejected (Gen. 4: 1–17). Genesis does not say why Cain's offering was rejected, but what God said implies that his offering had been inferior, or he himself unworthy—‘sin is lurking at the door’. Out of jealousy, Cain murdered his brother—traditionally, with the jawbone of an ass—and Abel's blood cried out to Heaven. Christ Himself referred to ‘righteous Abel’ (Matt. 23: 35) and Abel was seen by the ...
Abgar, Legend of Reference library
Abgar V (?4
῾Abid Reference library
(fl. c.1615–58). Indian miniature painter, son of Aqa riza (i) and brother of Abu῾l-hasan (ii). Both
Abraham Reference library
was the first of the *Patriarchs of the OT, the founder of the Hebrew nation and of other nations, since God promised that his descendants would be as innumerable as dust. He was originally called Abram, but his name was changed by God (similarly, his wife Sarai became Sarah). His story is told in Gen. 11–25, and three incidents in it have been subjects for Christian artists from the earliest times. He was born in Ur of the Chaldees, but was told by God to go to ‘a land I will show you’. With his wife and his nephew ...
Abu Tahir Reference library
Persian family of potters. The family is sometimes known, somewhat improperly, by the epithet Kashani [al-Kashani, Qashani], which
Abu Zayd (1186–1219) Reference library
(fl. Kashan, 1186–1219).
Persian potter. At least two dozen tiles and vessels signed by Abu Zayd
Abu῾l-Hasan (ii) (b.1588) Reference library
Indian painter. In 1619 the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r.1605–27)
Abu῾l-Qasim (fl. c.1816) Reference library
Persian painter. His only known work is a long composition depicting Fath ῾Ali Shah
acheiropoietos Reference library
A term applied to images, usually portraits of Christ, which are claimed to be of miraculous origin. The earliest record of such an image, the ...