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Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr  

(1756–1836)US Democratic Republican statesman. After losing the presidential election to Jefferson in 1800, Burr was elected Vice-President. He was defeated in the contest for the governorship of New ...
abacus

abacus  

An ancient device for performing arithmetic calculations by sliding beads along rods or in grooves. Despite the spread of electronic calculators and computers, the abacus is still widely used in the ...
abduction

abduction  

An inference process widely used in artificial intelligence, particularly in expert systems and rule-based systems. In diagnosis, for example, there may be a rule like “if measles then red spots” so ...
Abhinavagupta

Abhinavagupta   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,981 words

(tenth to eleventh century), medieval Indian philosopher.

Besides being an aesthete and a Tantric mystic, Abhinavagupta was a prolific

Abhinavagupta

Abhinavagupta   Reference library

V. K. Chari

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,007 words

Besides being an aesthete and a Tantric mystic, Abhinavagupta was a prolific writer and polymath. His fame rests chiefly on

Abject

Abject   Reference library

Barbara Creed

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,775 words
Illustration(s):
1

The conventional meaning of abjection signifies “a state of being cast off” or of feeling in a low or debased

abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln  

(1809–65)US Republican statesman, 16th President of the USA (1861–65). His election as President on an anti‐slavery platform antipathetic to the interests of the southern states helped precipitate ...
Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,219 words

The art movement known as Abstract Expressionism was characterized by gestural and/or nonobjective paintings and direct-welded metal sculptures. Also known

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism   Reference library

Caroline A. Jones

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,787 words
Illustration(s):
2

The art movement known as abstract expressionism was characterized by gestural and/or nonobjective paintings and direct-welded metal sculptures. Also known

Abstraction

Abstraction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

In its aesthetic use, the term abstraction refers to a historical style, primarily in the visual arts, in which representational

Abstraction

Abstraction   Reference library

Lucian Krukowski and Marek Wieczorek

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,697 words
Illustration(s):
2

This entry comprises two essays: Philosophical Perspective Contemporary Perspective

The first offers a philosophical analysis of the modern history of

academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
Acanthus

Acanthus  

(family Acanthaceae)A genus of shrubs and perennial herbs, most of which are xeromorphic and have spiny leaves. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals. The upper lip of the corolla is lacking. ...
Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Alexander Rehding

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,706 words
Illustration(s):
2

Acoustics, from the Greek akoustikón (pertaining to hearing), is concerned with the generation, transmission, perception, or effects of sound. Acoustics

acrostic

acrostic  

A poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words. The word is recorded from the late 16th century, and comes via French from Greek akrostikhis, ...
Addison, Joseph

Addison, Joseph (1672)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,676 words

(1672–1719), English poet, play-wright, and politician.

Addison's most important contributions to aesthetics were published as

Addison, Joseph

Addison, Joseph (1672–1719)   Reference library

Tom Furniss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,605 words

Joseph Addison published his most important contributions to aesthetics as essays in The Spectator, a daily newspaper that he

adoption

adoption  

In the heroic monomyth, the divine child is often adopted by menials or animals after being abandoned or threatened in some way. Oedipus, Sigurd (Siegfried), Krishna, Cybele, and Romulus and Remus ...
Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,784 words

This entry comprises five separate essays that clarify and contextualize Adorno's aesthetic theory: Survey of Thought Adorno's Dialectic of Appearance

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