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Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr  

(1756–1836)US Democratic Republican statesman. After losing the presidential election to Jefferson in 1800, Burr was elected Vice-President. He was defeated in the contest for the governorship of New ...
abacus

abacus  

An ancient device for performing arithmetic calculations by sliding beads along rods or in grooves. Despite the spread of electronic calculators and computers, the abacus is still widely used in the ...
abbreviation

abbreviation   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
790 words

An extremely common feature in medieval manuscripts, and to a lesser, but still significant, extent in early modern writing, an

abduction

abduction  

An inference process widely used in artificial intelligence, particularly in expert systems and rule-based systems. In diagnosis, for example, there may be a rule like “if measles then red spots” so ...
abecedarium

abecedarium   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
91 words

Derived from ‘ABC’, the term ‘abecedarium’ (plural: abecedaria), sometimes italicized as abecedarium or rendered as ‘abecedary’, means a tablet or

Abernethy, John

Abernethy, John (1764–1831)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

(1764–1831),

as president of the Royal College of Surgeons, one of the most influential men in the medical

abolitionism

abolitionism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

a slippery term covering both the movement for the abolition of the slave trade, achieved by an Act of Parliament

abortion

abortion  

There is no actual prohibition in the Bible against aborting a foetus. Nevertheless, in the unanimously accepted Jewish consensus, abortion is a very serious offence, though foeticide is not treated ...
Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln  

(1809–65)US Republican statesman, 16th President of the USA (1861–65). His election as President on an anti‐slavery platform antipathetic to the interests of the southern states helped precipitate ...
abridgement

abridgement   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
140 words

An abridgement is a shortened or condensed version of a text. Abridgements were made in manuscript and later in printed

abstract

abstract   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
88 words

An abstract is a brief summary, epitome, or precis of a work, text, or document. Abstracts are often found, for

academies

academies  

Are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de ...
Acanthus

Acanthus  

(family Acanthaceae)A genus of shrubs and perennial herbs, most of which are xeromorphic and have spiny leaves. Some species are cultivated as ornamentals. The upper lip of the corolla is lacking. ...
accent

accent   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
90 words

Accents in writing are marks (technically diacritical marks) qualifying certain letters to indicate particular meanings, sound values, or stresses on

accounts

accounts   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
445 words

Accounts are financial documents detailing expenditure and income, often drawn up systematically in columns, with appropriate calculations. An account book

achievement

achievement   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
60 words

In heraldry, an achievement is a pictorial representation of a family's complete insignia or armorial devices, including their coat of

Ackermann, Rudolph

Ackermann, Rudolph (1764–1834)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

(1764–1834),

publisher and bookseller. Born in Saxony, Ackermann moved to London in the 1780s, where, after a

acquittance

acquittance   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
78 words

An acquittance is a document normally written to acknowledge that records have been audited and found to be in order.

acrostic

acrostic  

A poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words. The word is recorded from the late 16th century, and comes via French from Greek akrostikhis, ...
Act of Union

Act of Union   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

the Act of Parliament of 1800 which dissolved the old independent Irish parliament of 1782 and integrated Ireland constitutionally with

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