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absorption cooler

absorption cooler   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
An air-source *heat pump (ASHP) that uses heat rather than electricity to drive it. In a water and lithium bromide cooler, for example, water at low pressure in an evaporator evaporates ... More
acid rain

acid rain   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

Rain containing high levels of sulphuric and nitric acid, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxides, which are emitted in the combustion of ...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
The actions taken to reduce the adverse effects of *climate change. Examples of adaptation are raising coastal defences to reduce the risk of flooding from sea-level rise; selecting crops ... More
Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology

Adding Biodiversity to Agricultural Landscapes Through Ecology and Biotechnology   Reference library

David Still

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Agriculture is practiced on 38.4% of the landmass on Earth (FAOSTAT, 2019), and having replaced natural ecosystems, it is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth. While agriculture has ... More
adiabatic

adiabatic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Relating to a process in which there is no heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. It is an idealization, but often a useful simplifying assumption to make when modelling a ... More
Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe

Agricultural Dispersals in Mediterranean and Temperate Europe   Reference library

Aurélie Salavert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
16,374 words
Illustration(s):
6

Agriculture is the relationship between an exploiting species and one or more exploited species living in an artificial cultivated ecosystem (...

Agricultural Energy Demand and Use

Agricultural Energy Demand and Use   Reference library

David Roland-Holst

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
9,147 words
Illustration(s):
13
Food is the primary source of our subsistence as it provides most of humanity’s biological energy. Thus, it is hardly surprising that most of the energy expended by humans during the ... More
Agricultural Innovation and Dispersal in Eastern North America

Agricultural Innovation and Dispersal in Eastern North America   Reference library

Kandace D. Hollenbach and Stephen B. Carmody

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
12,441 words
Illustration(s):
1
Plant remains from archaeological sites have demonstrated that the earliest foragers living in eastern North America utilized a range of wild plant foods, including nuts, fruits, and seeds ... More
Agricultural Methanogenesis

Agricultural Methanogenesis   Reference library

Alexander N. Hristov

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Agriculture is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Globally, it is estimated that agricultural activities contributed 5.0 to 5.8 Gt of carbon dioxide ... More
Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution in Surface Waters

Agricultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution in Surface Waters   Reference library

Marianne Bechmann and Per Stålnacke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
8,703 words
Illustration(s):
9
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential nutrients in agricultural production systems. However, large-scale anthropogenic nutrient inputs to aquatic ecosystems have long been ... More
Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia

Agricultural Origins and Their Consequences in Southwestern Asia   Reference library

Alan Simmons

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,709 words
Illustration(s):
8
The Neolithic is one of the most enduring research topics of archeaology. For most of our existence, humans were quite successful hunters and gatherers of wild resources. But around 12,000 ... More
Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico

Agricultural Practices and Environmental Impacts of Aztec and Pre-Aztec Central Mexico   Reference library

Deborah L. Nichols

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,310 words
Illustration(s):
5
The Aztec empire began as a military alliance among three city-states, Texcoco, Tenochtitlan, and Tlacopan, in the early 1400s to consolidate control over the Basin of Mexico in the ... More
Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment

Agricultural Subsidies and the Environment   Reference library

Heather Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
10,391 words
Illustration(s):
6
Governments around the world for centuries have confronted unrest alternately from farmers, food merchants, industrialists, financiers, urban workers, and international traders over ... More
Agroecology: Principles and Practices for Diverse, Resilient, and Productive Farming Systems

Agroecology: Principles and Practices for Diverse, Resilient, and Productive Farming Systems   Reference library

Miguel A. Altieri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
9,213 words
Illustration(s):
2
About 80% of the 1.5 billion hectares devoted to agriculture on the planet are occupied by large-scale industrial monocultures dependent on agrochemicals, which have left a huge ecological ... More
air conditioning

air conditioning   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The process of maintaining a space at a desired temperature and humidity. Usually cooling is implied and typically this is achieved through the use of ...

air mass

air mass   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

When the optical path length L through the atmosphere for solar radiation incident at an angle θ N is such that ...

airtightness

airtightness ((building))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Airtightness is measured by the number of air changes per hour (ach) that occur when there is a differential pressure of 50 pascals between outside and inside the house. If an air volume ... More
albedo

albedo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

The fraction of the Sun’s radiation reaching something—for example a cloud, or a whole planet—that is reflected. The Earth’s albedo is close to 30 per cent....

algae biofuels

algae biofuels   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Fuels derived from plant oils produced by algae, predominantly microalgae. Microalgae can produce more than 50 per cent of their dry weight as oil from their lipid content, and can be ... More
alternating current

alternating current   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

An electric current that periodically flows in a conductor in one direction and then in the opposite.

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