accommodative convergence : accommodation (AC : A) ratio Quick reference
The measure of accommodative convergence per unit of accommodation. Convergence and accommodation are related neurologically, but the AC : A ratio varies
acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy Quick reference
A rare condition characterized by bilateral cream-coloured placoid lesions of the posterior fundus. The lesions arise at the level of
Aggression and Anger in Sport and Performance Reference library
An extensive body of literature exists regarding aggression in sport, primarily in English but also some in Polish. This literature provides a sufficient groundwork for initial considerations in the establishment of a new science—the science on aggression in sport— which may constitute one of many components of the overall study of aggression....
While not always voluntary (e.g., retirement as a result of a career-ending injury) (e.g., Ristolainen, Kettunen, Kujala, & Heinonen, 2012...
Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance Reference library
Matthew P. Martens
Alcohol and drugs are a pervasive part of many sports, and in many ways they are inextricably linked. These links include issues such as ubiquitous alcohol advertising and sponsorship in many sports, frequent scandals involving performance-enhancing drugs (e.g., anabolic steroids and human growth hormone), and high-profile incidents among nationally known athletes that involve excessive alcohol and/or drug use. Scholarship on alcohol abuse, drug use, and sport has increased substantially, providing a more complete understanding of the phenomenon. Alcohol use among athletes has received more attention in the research literature than use of other substances, which is not surprising considering that it is abused more than drugs like marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines. Three primary topics related to alcohol and other drug use are discussed in this article. First, rates of alcohol abuse and drug use among different groups of athletes are addressed. When possible, comparisons with relevant nonathlete norms are discussed. Second, several unique considerations associated with understanding alcohol abuse and drug use specifically among athletes are presented. Third, prevention and intervention strategies that have promise for reducing alcohol abuse and drug use in sport are explored. Finally, suggestions are provided for future directions among scholars and practitioners interested in this topic....