A′ccius, Lucius (170–c.86 bc) Reference library
Latin poet and literary scholar, from Picenum in Umbria. He was a younger contemporary of the tragedian *Pacuvius and
‘A’isha bt. Abi Bakr Reference library
One of the wives of *Muhammad and the daughter of the first *caliph, *Abu Bakr (r. 622–4). She died in 678. She married Muhammad at the age of 9, and was his close confidante. She was also extremely controversial. An incident in which she was impugned of sexual misbehaviour occasioned the ...
Abacus Reference library
Uppermost element of a capital on a column or pilaster. On the Doric, Ionic and Tuscan orders of architecture it
abacus Reference library
William David Ross and Michael Vickers
a counting-board, the usual aid to reckoning in antiquity. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans alike used a board with vertical columns, on which (working from right to left) units, tens, hundreds, or (where money was in question) e.g. ⅛ obols, ¼ obols, ½ obols, obols, drachmae, sums of 10, 100, 1,000 drachmae, and talents were inscribed. When an addition sum was done, the totals of the columns were carried to the left, as in our ordinary addition. The numbers might be marked in writing or by pebbles, counters, or pegs....
Abaton Reference library
An enclosure attached to a temple of Asklepios, where patients not in a state of ritual purity could
‘Abbasids ((in Umayyad times)) Reference library
Konstantin Klein and Andrew Marsham
Caliphal dynasty (750–1258) who seized the *caliphate from the *Umayyads in the so-called ‘Abbasid Revolution of 747–50. The ‘Abbasids took their eponym from their ancestor al-‘Abbas (d. ...
Abbayei (278–338) Reference library
Head of the Babylonian rabbinic academy of *Pumbedita. Following the early deaths of his parents, Abbayei was raised by his uncle Rabbah bar Nahmani, who may have applied the nickname Abbayei (my father) to his nephew to avoid having to refer to him by his true name Nahhmani, which was his own father’s name. In addition to Rabbah, Abbayei’s primary mentor was Rav Joseph, and upon the latter’s death in 323 Abbayei assumed leadership of the Pumbeditha academy. His numerous legal disagreements with ...