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ʿAbbāsid Caliphate

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,214 words
Illustration(s):
3

The rise of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate was the first fissure in Islamic culture; it would eventually result in the Shīʿī

Abdülhamid II

Abdülhamid II   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

Abdülhamid II (1842–1918) was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). A profound political and economic crisis

Ablutions

Ablutions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
998 words
Illustration(s):
2

A practice that consists of washing, which introduces the Muslim into the state of ritual purity (ṭuhr) and

Abolition

Abolition   Reference library

Sandra Jean Graham

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,414 words
Illustration(s):
1

From the mid-1830s through the Civil War, abolitionists systematically deployed songs as spiritual weaponry in the fight to eradicate slavery

Abraham

Abraham   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

Abraham or Avraham (at first Abram, or Ibrahim in Arabic) is a central figure in Hebrew mythology as developed in

Abramovich, Pinchas

Abramovich, Pinchas (1909)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
282 words
Illustration(s):
1

This artist studied at the academy in Kovno (now Kaunas, Lithuania) in 1925; he emigrated to Palestine in 1929 and

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa: An Interpretation

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal disease caused by the slow-acting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

A central story in Hebrew mythology contained in the first chapter of the biblical book of Genesis, sacred to

Adler, Larry

Adler, Larry (10 Feb 1914)   Reference library

Ivor Beynon and Ryan Raul Bañagale

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
391 words
Illustration(s):
1

He was acknowledged as the first harmonica player to achieve recognition and acceptance in classical musical circles and to have

Advertising

Advertising   Reference library

Michael Krondl

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

When President Calvin Coolidge addressed a national advertising conference in 1926, he was pleased to report on the happy

Advertising Cookbooklets and Recipes

Advertising Cookbooklets and Recipes   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

Since the mid-nineteenth century, recipes have been used to sell products. At first, recipes were incidental to the products advertised.

Aesop

Aesop   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference

Aesop was the legendary sixth- century b.c.e. composer of Greek fables, some actually dating from as early as the seventh

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,580 words
Illustration(s):
2
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Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,590 words
Illustration(s):
2

In the nineteenth century Afghanistan emerged as a buffer state between the contending British Indian and tsarist Russian colonial empires.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

Physical map

Political map

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Africa

Africa   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

Sahara, The West Coast, East and South Africa, Madagascar

Mythologies abound in Africa. Tribes possess their own traditions, and even

African American Food

African American Food   Reference library

Howard Paige, Mark H. Zanger, and Michael W. Twitty

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

African American music

African American music   Reference library

Guthrie P. Ramsey Jr.

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,113 words
Illustration(s):
3

A term applied to distinct configurations of sound organization linked historically and socially to people of African descent living within

African Oral Literature

African Oral Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,678 words
Illustration(s):
2

Artistic forms of expression are deeply ingrained in the black cultural experience and in the lives of African peoples, providing

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