accidental Reference library
A sign used in musical notation either for a note outside the given key of a piece of music or to cancel such a note. The sharp raises the note before which it is placed by one semitone; the flat lowers it by one semitone; the double sharp and double flat respectively raise and lower it by a whole tone; the natural cancels any other accidental. These signs and their names in English, French, German, and Italian are shown in Table 1 (their early shapes are given in parentheses where applicable)....
Accordion (1905) Reference library
Helmi Strahl Harrington and Gerhard Kubik
Term applied to a number of portable free-reed aerophones. Their common features include a mechanical keyboard under each hand, manipulated
Acoustics Reference library
Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg
Term that can embrace all aspects of the science of sound and hearing, but is here treated in the specific
acoustics Reference library
Acoustics is the science of sound and hearing. Sound is a form of energy and involves vibratory motion. When a piano is played in a concert hall, for example, the energy exerted by the player causes the hammers to strike the strings and set them into vibration. This vibration is taken up by the soundboard and radiated as a ‘pressure wave’ through successive layers of air particles. The members of the audience hear the sounds when the air sets their eardrums in motion to produce signals that are communicated to the brain via nerve-fibres. This simple description, of course, takes no account of the subtleties introduced by the player, the instrument itself, and the acoustic properties of the hall (...
Alberti bass Reference library
A type of accompaniment to a melody, most commonly found in keyboard music, which consists of a series of ‘broken chords’ treated as shown in Ex. 1. It takes its name from the 18th-century Italian composer ...