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῾Abbasid Caliphate

῾Abbasid Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,837 words
Illustration(s):
1

As the result of a revolution that culminated In 750ce in the defeat of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan

Abila

Abila   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,556 words
Illustration(s):
1

city of the Decapolis, located about 15 km (9 mi.) north-northeast of Irbid in northern Jordan. Abila has an occupational

Abu Ḥamid, Tell

Abu Ḥamid, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,109 words
Illustration(s):
1

site located in the Jordan Valley, at 240 m below sea level, on Lisan marl deposits between two small wadis

Adulis

Adulis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
827 words
Illustration(s):
1

important ancient coastal trading center in Ethiopia (now in Eritrea; 15°17′ N, 39°40′ E). Located on the deep Gulf of

Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

The destruction of Jerusalem in 70 c.e. at the end of the Jewish Revolt was a watershed event in the

African Iron Production and Iron Working Technologies: Methods

African Iron Production and Iron Working Technologies: Methods   Reference library

Louise Iles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,261 words
Illustration(s):
18
Iron has played a significant role in the sociocultural, economic, and environmental spheres of many African communities, past and present, not only for utilitarian items, but also in the ... More
Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,242 words
Illustration(s):
3

The broad array of activities and knowledge whereby human communities exploit plants to produce food and other crops (fibers and

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Oded Borowski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,683 words
Illustration(s):
1

The term “agriculture” pertains to the cultivation of the soil in order to produce food and other useful and appreciated

Ai

Ai   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,477 words
Illustration(s):
1

biblical site located east of Bethel ( Gn. 12:8 , Jos. 7:2 ). Three sites on the perimeter of modern

῾Ain Dara῾

῾Ain Dara῾   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,064 words
Illustration(s):
1

site located in Syria's ῾Afrin valley, upstream from the ῾Amuq plain, about 67 km (42 mi.) northwest of Aleppo and

῾Ain Ghazal

῾Ain Ghazal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,867 words
Illustration(s):
1

site located in the Wadi Zerqa, at the northeast edge of Amman, Jordan (31° 59′ N, 35°58′ E). Highway construction

Akkade

Akkade   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,670 words
Illustration(s):
1

capital city, location unknown, of the Akkadian Empire (c. 2290–2200bce), created and maintained by Sargon and his

Akkadian

Akkadian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,214 words
Illustration(s):
3

The language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians of Mesopotamia, Akkadian, subsumes both Assyrian and Babylonian dialects within it. The

Akkadians

Akkadians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,432 words
Illustration(s):
2

Although the origin of the term is unknown, Akkadians refers to a Semitic-speaking people living in northern Babylonia in about

Aleppo

Aleppo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,141 words
Illustration(s):
1

(Ar., Ḥalab),

the second largest city in Syria, located in the northern part of the country (40°12′ N, 38°68′ 5″

Alexandria

Alexandria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

city in Egypt, the most important of many by that name founded by Alexander the Great (d. 323bce).

Alexandrian Empire

Alexandrian Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

Under the hegemony of King Philip II of Macedonia and, later, his son Alexander III (the Great), the Greek city-states

Altars

Altars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,065 words
Illustration(s):
1

In the ancient Near East, altars are typically classified on the basis of their material and style of construction. However,

Amarna, Tell El-

Amarna, Tell El-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,566 words
Illustration(s):
2

site of the capital of the heretic Egyptian king Akhenaten, built to honor his sole god, Aten, located in Middle

Amman

Amman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,681 words
Illustration(s):
4

capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, located about 88 km (55 mi.) east of Jerusalem, 206 km (128

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