A&P Reference library
A&P dominated the grocery business in the United States for much of the twentieth century. It had a particularly large
abbey beers Reference library
are beers produced in the styles made famous by Belgian Trappist monks, but not actually brewed within the walls of a monastery. Today, the terms “Trappist,” “Trappistes,” and “Trappisten” or any similar derivation comprise an “appellation ...
Achilles tendon Quick reference
A large tendon at the back of the ankle which connects the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) to the heel
adductor muscles Quick reference
A muscle that moves a body part (e.g. an arm or leg) towards the midline of the body. A strain
Advertising Reference library
When President Calvin Coolidge addressed a national advertising conference in 1926, he was pleased to report on the happy
Advertising Cookbooklets and Recipes Reference library
Andrew F. Smith
Since the mid-nineteenth century, recipes have been used to sell products. At first, recipes were incidental to the products advertised.
advertising. Reference library
Sitting quietly in a glass, cask, or bottle, beer is not always its own best spokesperson, and needs some help getting the word out about its quality, availability, and origin. The earliest advertising vehicles were very simple. In the days of ancient Sumeria, a Brewster would announce the availability of fresh ale by hanging a bush above her door. In medieval times, this symbol of a bush or a broom was known as an ale stake, with the simple message, “We have beer.” Early tavern or brewpub signs were visual advertising, appropriate for an illiterate clientele. Very little evidence for graphically branded beers exists prior to the mid-19th century, although it is clear that certain breweries enjoyed wide fame. In ...
African American Food Reference library
Howard Paige, Mark H. Zanger, and Michael W. Twitty
agility Quick reference
Agility is the ability to change body position rapidly and accurately without losing balance. It is important in sports and
A grant Reference library
is a small wort collection vessel, open to the air, placed between the lautering vessel and the wort kettle. The traditional purpose of a grant was threefold: (a) to avoid a potential vacuum in the lauter or mash/lauter tun during wort pumping for recirculation or filling the kettle, which could seal the mash to the false bottom, thus causing turbid worts or stuck mashes; (b) to allow the brewer to asses wort clarity and wort flow; and (c) in larger systems with multiple lauter tun outlets, to determine whether all parts of the grain bed flow sufficiently well or require raking or other measures to improve flow-through. The grant thus serves as a flow buffer. In old tower-style breweries, where brewing vessels are stacked one on top of the other and wort flow is by gravity only, there is, of course, no need for a grant as a vacuum break, but its other uses remain valid....
Agricultural Experimentation and Research Reference library
Andrew F. Smith
American farms in the colonial period had much in common with European farms of the Middle Ages. By nature, farmers
akebia Reference library
the fruit of either of two oriental climbing shrubs in the genus Akebia of the family Lardizabalaceae.
Although appreciated in their native region (China, Korea, and Japan), the fruits are rarely cultivated there and have not been introduced elsewhere on a significant scale. Each plant produces up to three pendent fruits, purplish in colour. Those of ...
alcohol Quick reference
Alcohol (or more precisely ethanol) is a colourless, tasteless, flammable liquid, formed during the fermentation of yeasts. In medicine, it
ale-wives Reference library
An “ale-wife” or “brewster” is a designation from the Anglo-Saxon period in England, between the 5th century CE and the Norman Conquest, when it was the responsibility of the woman of the house to make sure the men were well supplied with beer. Domestic brewing grew apace following the Norman invasion of England. In the homes of the nobility, ale-wives were employed to supply families with beer. In ...
ale houses Reference library
The term “ale” comes from the Danish and Saxon öl and ealu, words implanted on the English by invaders from mainland Europe and Scandinavia. In Anglo-Saxon times, from the 5th century CE, brewing was a domestic pursuit. But the demand for ale was enormous—it was drunk at every meal, celebration, and funeral—and often outstripped supply. Some households built a reputation for the quality of their ale and began to specialize in brewing. When a new brew was ready, a member of the family would tie a branch or part of a bush to a pole placed through the door or a window. ...