A&P Reference library
A&P dominated the grocery business in the United States for much of the twentieth century. It had a particularly large
abbey beers Reference library
are beers produced in the styles made famous by Belgian Trappist monks, but not actually brewed within the walls of a monastery. Today, the terms “Trappist,” “Trappistes,” and “Trappisten” or any similar derivation comprise an “appellation ...
Achilles tendon Quick reference
A large tendon at the back of the ankle which connects the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) to the heel bone (calcaneus). The tendon is very susceptible to injuries. An Achilles tendon weakened by lack of exercise may rupture if the calf muscle contracts suddenly (for example, when a badminton player suddenly changes from a backward to a forward motion or when a jogger misjudges a curb and lands too far forward on his or her foot). A rupture is often accompanied by a loud crack and victims think they have been struck violently behind the heel. In extreme cases, the tendon may be completely ruptured, leaving the victim incapacitated and requiring surgery. Less severe than a complete rupture, but more common, is Achilles tendinitis. This stress injury is characterized by inflammation, pain, and tenderness in and around the tendon. It is common among runners who train over long distances on hard surfaces, and those who increase their training intensity too quickly. Women distance runners who usually wear high-heeled shoes are at particular risk because these shoes effectively shorten the Achilles tendon over a period of years. When they adopt the more flat footed position during running, their tendons are subjected to more stress than they are used to. Training shoes with high backs or hard heeltabs also increase the risk of injury....
adductor muscles Quick reference
A muscle that moves a body part (e.g. an arm or leg) towards the midline of the body. A strain of the thigh adductors is a relatively common injury of horse riders, fast bowlers, and footballers who make lunge tackles. A simple exercise called the adductor stretch reduces the risk of injury (see figure). It is also useful for pregnant women and others whose thighs tend to rotate inwards causing backache and flat feet....
Advertising Reference library
When President Calvin Coolidge addressed a national advertising conference in 1926, he was pleased to report on the happy
Advertising Cookbooklets and Recipes Reference library
Andrew F. Smith
Since the mid-nineteenth century, recipes have been used to sell products. At first, recipes were incidental to the products advertised.
advertising. Reference library
Sitting quietly in a glass, cask, or bottle, beer is not always its own best spokesperson, and needs some help getting the word out about its quality, availability, and origin. The earliest advertising vehicles were very simple. In the days of ancient Sumeria, a Brewster would announce the availability of fresh ale by hanging a bush above her door. In medieval times, this symbol of a bush or a broom was known as an ale stake, with the simple message, “We have beer.” Early tavern or brewpub signs were visual advertising, appropriate for an illiterate clientele. Very little evidence for graphically branded beers exists prior to the mid-19th century, although it is clear that certain breweries enjoyed wide fame. In ...
African American Food Reference library
Howard Paige, Mark H. Zanger, and Michael W. Twitty
agility Quick reference
Agility is the ability to change body position rapidly and accurately without losing balance. It is important in sports and activities in which opponents or obstacles have to be avoided (e.g. slalom events). It is a basic component of physical fitness. Although its exact nature has not been determined, it depends on muscular power, reaction time, coordination, and dynamic flexibility....
A grant Reference library
is a small wort collection vessel, open to the air, placed between the lautering vessel and the wort kettle. The traditional purpose of a grant was threefold: (a) to avoid a potential vacuum in the lauter or mash/lauter tun during wort pumping for recirculation or filling the kettle, which could seal the mash to the false bottom, thus causing turbid worts or stuck mashes; (b) to allow the brewer to asses wort clarity and wort flow; and (c) in larger systems with multiple lauter tun outlets, to determine whether all parts of the grain bed flow sufficiently well or require raking or other measures to improve flow-through. The grant thus serves as a flow buffer. In old tower-style breweries, where brewing vessels are stacked one on top of the other and wort flow is by gravity only, there is, of course, no need for a grant as a vacuum break, but its other uses remain valid....
Agricultural Experimentation and Research Reference library
Andrew F. Smith
American farms in the colonial period had much in common with European farms of the Middle Ages. By nature, farmers
akebia Reference library
the fruit of either of two oriental climbing shrubs in the genus Akebia of the family Lardizabalaceae.
Although appreciated in their native region (China, Korea, and Japan), the fruits are rarely cultivated there and have not been introduced elsewhere on a significant scale. Each plant produces up to three pendent fruits, purplish in colour. Those of ...