Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture Reference library
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Brazilian History and Culture brings together a variety of specialists from around Latin America, Europe, and the United States. The encyclopedia’s 115 entries range from the nation’s prehistory until the beginning of the 21st century and feature original research on the history and legacies of slavery, political history, international relations, economic history, social history, cultural history, and more, with special attention paid to arts and sciences. The collection is divided into four large chronological sections: the precolonial and long colonial periods, the short imperial period, and the republican period that continues to the present day. It also seeks to reinvent the historiographical tradition by securing the participation of historians from across generations whose contributions compare themes and models of interpretation that correspond to specific phases of historical research. Written in clear explanatory prose and incorporating the latest research, the encyclopedia’s articles offer a marvelous narrative that will be of use to scholars, students, and the general reader.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology Reference library
The history of psychology as a scholarly field has grown and diversified since the landmark volumes of E. G. Boring’s A History of Experimental Psychology (1929, 1950). It is now a site of scholarly inquiry that attracts practitioners from a range of disciplines. Psychological concepts and practices hold interest for people from all walks of life and from around the globe. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology reflects the range of such interest. The essays found here explore topics from everyday subjective experiences to deep connections among esoteric laboratory sciences and Enlightenment philosophies. Our contributors seek to answer difficult questions about how psychology developed, not only in the Western world, but across the globe. Human history has many examples of how people have used knowledge about themselves, others, and their world to try and change or improve their lives. How did these experiences help make possible a science and profession of psychology? In turn, how has scientific and professional psychology shaped or influenced the psychology of everyday life?
The reader will find in these essays key insights into the profound differences that have marked the growth of Western modernity—race, gender, sexuality among them—and what they reveal about selfhood, identity, and possibilities for human freedom and oppression. In our own time, we see the psychological, economic, and political legacy of past practices and the profound inequities that we now must address. We hope these histories will help readers find or create counter-histories that help us move toward a more equitable world.
A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.) Quick reference
‘Concise, current information … highly recommended’ – Choice, the magazine of the American Library Association
Over 2,800 entries
This authoritative dictionary provides informative and analytical entries on the most important people, organizations, events, movements, and ideas that have shaped the world we live in. Covering the period from 1900 to the present day, this fully revised and updated new edition presents a global perspective on recent history, with a wide range of new entries from Tony Abbott, the European migration crisis, and ISIS to Narendra Modi, Hassan Rouhani, and UKIP. All existing entries have been brought up to date. Handy tables include lists of office-holders for countries and organizations and winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
This comprehensive reference resource will be invaluable to students of history, politics, and international relations as well as to journalists, policymakers, and general readers interested in the modern world.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Foreign Relations Reference library
More than 111 scholarly articles
The study of US foreign relations is one of the most dynamic fields of American history. The availability of new sources in recent years has opened new opportunities for examining US behavior through the lenses of other nations. Meanwhile, historians of international affairs have increasingly borrowed the methods, questions, and insights of cultural and social history, enlivening their field and opening bold new lines of interpretation. Some scholars have moved away from the traditional focus on presidents, diplomats, intelligence chiefs, and military officers to examine the roles of activists, experts, journalists, athletes, and others in American foreign relations. This collection captures all these trends in a fully up-to-date, authoritative survey of US foreign relations across almost 250 years. More than 100 entries on topics ranging from the American Revolution to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq provide basic background well-suited to readers approaching their topics for the first time. But the entries, written by a remarkable array of expert authors, also offer a valuable tool for experienced researchers and advanced scholars. Authors provide surveys of the scholarly literature related to each topic, along with guides to primary sources, including a rapidly growing number of online collections. The collection covers traditional topics like Anglo-American relations or the role of nuclear weapons in US diplomacy, while also considering newer themes like gender, LGBTQ issues, and environmental diplomacy.
Eminent Chinese of the Qing Period (Rev) Reference library
More than 800 entries
This much-loved work was produced under the auspices of the Library of Congress, and published by the US Government Printing Office during World War II. Its contributors comprise the founders of the profession of Chinese history research and its teaching in the United States. The 2016 Berkshire edition contains the original biographical sketches as well as its extensive front and back matter. The Wade-Giles transliteration has been converted to modern pinyin and the book includes a pinyin / Wade-Giles conversion table and an up-to-date bibliography. The introduction is by Professor Pamela K. Crossley, who digitized part of the original publication, and who touches upon the historical context of this publication as well as its continuing importance for modern readers and researchers.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources Reference library
The difficulties of exploring African history, especially for earlier periods, have spurred the development of a wide range of methodologies and approaches, such that Wyatt McGaffey once termed it “the decathlon of the social sciences.” Historians have long utilized archaeology, ethnography, historical linguistics, and oral traditions, but are only beginning to explore the possibilities of genetics or many of the new techniques used by archaeology and other sciences. And as digital sources—from historical documents and statistics to cartographic, climatic, demographic, and environmental modeling—proliferate, so do the problems in using them. The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources discusses these sources and methods, and examines how these developments have influenced the scholarship that historians produce. Such methods continue to evolve, demanding that historians develop basic understandings of them. Thus, the Encyclopedia builds a theoretical foundation for the field, expanding the ways that Africa can be studied, and recovering the histories of the continent that often appear outside of the documentary record.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History Reference library
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History synthesizes three generations of urban historical scholarship, providing a thematic and chronological overview of American urban history from the pre-Columbian era until the beginning decades of the twenty-first century. The 92 articles collected here describe and analyze the transformation of the United States from a simple agrarian and small-town society to a complex urban and suburban nation. Each essay has been authored, peer-reviewed, and edited by scholars expert in the field, offering a reliable, historiographically informed examination of a specific subject in American urban history. The encyclopedia differs from previous publications by providing semi-structured, synoptic articles ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 words or more. The articles are divided into three parts: 1. an accessible narrative overview of an important issue in American urban history; 2. a brief historiographical summary of significant writers and publications on the subject; and 3. a short introduction to essential primary sources. This tri-part format allows each article to serve multiple audiences: those who simply want an informed an intelligent introduction to a given topic; those interested in identifying the leading publications on a specific subject; and those interested in performing detailed research on the topic at hand.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture Reference library
Over 120 scholarly articles
This work provides a compendium of the best available scholarship on Mexico’s rich history and culture. An international group of leading authors, including well-known Mexican scholars, reveals new or little-known dimensions of this past or confirms with new sources previous interpretations of the Mexican experience. Themes include the expected topics of politics and economics, combined with powerful articles on biography, environment, gender, and culture, including music, art, and cinema. Unique to this work are the articles on digital sources, such as digitized archives and photographic collections, with information on accessing and using them for historical research.
Articles add to topical considerations such as gender and ethnicity, place Mexico into wider dimensions such as the Atlantic World and the Pacific Rim, and offer conclusions on natural phenomena such as flora (yielding pulque) and volcanic eruptions (in a farmer's corn patch). Authors enlighten readers with assessments of Spanish-Aztec warfare, indigenous mastery of the Spanish legal system to bend it to their purposes, songs prohibited by the Inquisition, and more than one hundred other fascinating aspects of the nation's history. Coverage of individuals includes widely known figures such as the monumental Benito Juárez, the hero and traitor Antonio López de Santa Anna, Porfirio Díaz, and Lázaro Cárdenas, as well as several outstanding women whose contributions have helped shape Mexican culture and politics. The Tlatelolco massacre of demonstrators in 1968 receives careful assessment and other essays examine the changing popular and political attitudes that followed. The tragedy ushered in events that created Mexico's electoral democracy confirmed in the 2000 presidential election.
Written in clear explanatory prose and incorporating the latest research, the encyclopedia's articles offer a marvelous narrative of use to scholars, students, and the general reader.
The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity Reference library
Over 5,000 entries
The first comprehensive, multi-disciplinary reference work covering every aspect of history, culture, religion, and life in Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Near East (including the Persian Empire and Central Asia) between c. AD 250 to 750, the era now generally known as Late Antiquity. This period saw the re-establishment of the Roman Empire, its conversion to Christianity and its replacement in the West by Germanic kingdoms, the continuing Roman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Persian Sassanian Empire, and the rise of Islam.
Consisting of more than 1.5 million words, drawing on the latest scholarship, and written by more than 400 contributors, it bridges a significant period of history between those covered by the acclaimed Oxford Classical Dictionary and The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages, and aims to establish itself as the essential reference companion to this period.
Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4) Reference library
Over 100 entries
The fourth volume of the Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography covers the years 1979-2015, providing a riveting new way to understand twenty-first-century China and a personal look at the changes that have taken place since the Reform and Opening Up era started in 1979. One hundred key individuals from this period were selected by an international group of experts, and the stories were written by more than 70 authors in 14 countries. The authors map the paths taken by these individuals-some rocky, some meandering, some fateful-and in telling their stories give contemporary Chinese history a human face. The editors have included – with the advice of myriad experts around the world – not only the life stories of politicians and government officials, who play a crucial role in the development of the country, but the stories of cultural figures including film directors, activists, writers, and entrepreneurs from the mainland China, Hong Kong, and also from Taiwan.
The "Greater China" that comes through in this volume has diverse ideas and identities. It is often contradictory, sometimes fractious, and always full of creative human complexity. Some of the lives rendered here are heroic. Some are tragic, and many are inspirational. Some figures come in for trenchant criticism, and others are celebrated with a sense of wonder and awe. Like previous volumes of the Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography, this volume includes a range of appendices, including a pronunciation guide, a bibliography, and a timeline of key events.
The work features a range of appendices, including a timeline of key events, a pronunciation guide, a bibliography, lists of rulers and other prominent people, and other supplemental materials for students of Chinese history and culture.
Berkshire Encyclopedia of China Reference library
With its coverage of environmental issues, global economics, online communications, and the latest political developments, this Encyclopedia is truly a 21st-century work. While including many articles about China's earliest history - going back more than 5,000 years - the Encyclopedia is focused on the events, concepts, and people that matter today. The authors of its 800 accessibly written and lavishly illustrated articles, which range from 600 to 6,000 words, are scholars at major Chinese and Western universities and research institutes.
Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.) Reference library
From the big bang to the 21st century, this renowned encyclopedia provides an integrated view of human and universal history. Eminent scholars examine environmental and social issues by exploring connections and interactions made over time (and across cultures and locales) through trade, warfare, migrations, religion, and diplomacy.
Over 100 new articles, and 1,200 illustrations, photos, and maps from the collections of the Library of Congress, the World Digital Library, the New York Public Library, and many more sources, make this second edition a vital addition for world history-focused classrooms and libraries.
Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography Reference library
From Toussaint L’Ouverture to Pelé, the Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography will provide a comprehensive overview of the lives of Caribbeans and Afro-Latin Americans who are historically significant. The project will be unprecedented in scale, covering the entire Caribbean, and the Afro-descended populations throughout Latin America, including people who spoke and wrote Creole, Dutch, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. It will also encompass the full scope of history, with entries on figures from the first forced slave migrations in the sixteenth centuries, to entries on living persons such as the Haitian musician and politician Wyclef Jean and the Cuban author and poet Nancy Morejón. Individuals will be drawn from all walks of life including philosophers, politicians, activists, entertainers, scholars, poets, scientists, religious figures, kings, and everyday people whose lives have contributed to the history of the Caribbean and Latin America.
Dictionary Plus History Quick reference
This dictionary comprises authoritative, highly accessible entries on notable eras, events, and individuals that have shaped our history. These entries are supplementary to other history titles in the Quick Reference collection, and are written by specialist authors. The dictionary is an ongoing project, and more entries will be added over time.
The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment Reference library
Over 500 entries
The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment is the first reference work on this key subject in early American history. With substantial and original essays on key American Enlightenment figures, including Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, David Rittenhouse, Benjamin Rush, Jonathan Edwards and many others, it provides a comprehensive account to complement the intense scholarly activity that has recently centered on the European Enlightenment. This wide-ranging collection also includes topical essays, and entries on dozens of often-overlooked secondary figures.
It has long been known that Americans made their own contributions to the Enlightenment, most notably by putting Enlightenment ideas to work in defining the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the nature of the early American Republic. These volumes show that the American Enlightenment was more far reaching than even that story assumes. Presenting a fresh definition of the Enlightenment in America, this remarkable work confirms that the American Enlightenment constitutes the central framework for understanding the development of American history between c.1720 and c.1820.
A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.) Quick reference
‘The book is packed with interest to the final page’ – The Independent
Over 3,800 entries
Written by over 100 specialist contributors, this dictionary describes the people and events that have shaped and defined domestic, political, social, and cultural life in Britain since 55 BC. New entries to this edition include Diamond Jubilee 2012, Ed Miliband, and United Kingdom Independence Party; and existing entries on David Cameron, Elizabeth II, national debt, and Alex Salmond have been updated.
Derived from the highly acclaimed Oxford Companion to British History, A Dictionary of British History has been a leading historical reference work since its publication in 2001. Now thoroughly revised and fully updated, this invaluable A–Z remains essential for anyone studying British history.
A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.) Quick reference
Over 4,000 entries
This wide-ranging dictionary contains a wealth of information on all aspects of history, from prehistory right up to the present day. Accessible, clear, and concise entries include biographies of key figures in world history (living and dead), separate entries for every country in the world (summarising key historical events), and in-depth entries on religious and political movements, international organizations, and major conflicts and events and their after-effects.
For this new edition, existing entries have been revised and updated to reflect the very latest global events including changes in leadership, wars, political situations, and the statistical information given for each country (population counts, currency, languages, religions). New entries have been included for key figures who have recently come to prominence, and world events.
The dictionary also contains twenty-five detailed maps linked to key historical events and topics. Also included are over 200 country maps.
Encyclopedic in scope, this ambitious A to Z provides an excellent overview of world history both for students and anyone with an interest in the subject.
The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.) Reference library
Over 4,500 entries
First published in 1997, under the editorship of the late John Cannon and in consultation with over 100 distinguished contributors, this Companion describes and analyses the people and events that have shaped and defined life in Britain over more than 2,000 years of political, social, and cultural change.
It provides a wealth of fact and insight on all aspects of the subject and from a variety of perspectives, including social, political, military, cultural, economic, scientific, and feminist. As well as the usual monarchs, battles, and political events, there are dozens of entries on the wider aspects of British history over the centuries. New entries on topics such as alternative vote, the financial crisis, Olympics in Britain, and the Scottish Independence Referendum ensure that the Companion remains relevant and current. Useful appendices include maps and genealogies, as well as a subject index.
The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography Reference library
Over 130 entries
This publication, the first of its kind since 1898, represents the work of more than one hundred internationally recognized experts from nearly a dozen countries. It has been designed to satisfy the growing thirst of students, researchers, professionals, and general readers for knowledge about China. It makes the entire span of Chinese history manageable by introducing the reader to emperors, politicians, poets, writers, artists, scientists, explorers, and philosophers who have shaped and transformed China over the course of five thousand years. In 135 entries, ranging from 1,000 to 8,000 words and written by some of the world's leading China scholars, the Dictionary takes the reader from the important (even if possibly mythological) figures of ancient China to Communist leaders Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. The in-depth essays provide rich historical context, and create a compelling narrative that weaves abstract concepts and disparate events into a coherent story. Cross-references between the articles show the connections between times, places, movements, events, and individuals.
The work features a range of appendices, including a timeline of key events, a pronunciation guide, a bibliography, lists of rulers and other prominent people, and other supplemental materials for students of Chinese history and culture.
Dynasties of the World (2 ed.) Quick reference
Over 260 entries
From Horus Aha, first king of Egypt, to Willem-Alexander, the new king of the Netherlands, this unique reference resource charts five millennia of kings, queens, emperors, empresses, regencies, joint reigns, abdications, depositions, interregna, canonizations, beatifications, foreign rule, mandates, protectorates, and dynastic unions.
Chronological tables show the names and dates of rulers and their family relationships, while supplementary notes cover problems of chronology, calendars and dating systems, margins of error for uncertain dates, and names and titles. Bibliographies document the research and guide the reader to additional information.
With its broad coverage, scholarly approach, and clear presentation, this work is ideal for professionals and amateurs alike.
The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.) Reference library
Over 700 entries
For over 2,000 years the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome have captivated our collective imagination and provided inspiration for so many aspects of our lives—from culture, literature, drama, cinema, and television to society, education, and politics. Many of the roots of the way life is lived in the West today can be traced to the ancient civilizations, not only in politics, law, technology, philosophy, and science, but also in social and family life, language, and art.
This work incorporates the updates and revisions made to the latest edition of the acclaimed Oxford Classical Dictionary, from which this abridged Companion derives. A revised chronology, bibliography, and thematic listing of entries supplement the A to Z entries. It also contains over 40 new or completely rewritten entries on Greek and Roman society and culture, including ancient perceptions of colour, gender, ghosts, masculinity, sacred laws, and theatricality, as well as new feature entries on topics such as emotions, madness, and ancient conceptions of the senses.
Beautiful illustrations, clear and authoritative entries, and the useful chronology and bibliography make this Companion the perfect guide for readers interested in learning more about the Graeco-Roman world.
The Oxford Companion to World War II Reference library
This online edition was reviewed and selectively updated by the original editors in 2011.
Written by more than 140 specialist contributors from Italy, Germany, and Japan, as well as the Allied nations, the Companion provides unique world-wide coverage of the subject. Every aspect of the war is covered including, detailed surveys of major countries; politics and grand strategy; domestic and economic issues; resistance and intelligence services; campaigns, battles, and military operations; warfare and weapons; wartime leaders and influential people; and slogans and phrases.
The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture Reference library
Over 2,030 entries
The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture offers unparalleled coverage of all aspects of art and architecture from Medieval Western Europe, from the 6th century to the early 16th century. Drawing upon the expansive scholarship in the celebrated Grove Dictionary of Art and adding hundreds of new entries on topics not previously covered, as well as fully updated and expanded entries and bibliographies, The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture offers students, researchers, and the general public a reliable, up-to-date, and convenient resource covering this field of major importance in the development of Western history and international art and architecture.
The Encyclopedia offers scholarly material on Medieval art in more than 2,030 intelligent, well-written, and informative articles, each of which is followed by a bibliography to support further research. These include a mixture of shorter, more factual articles and larger, multi-section articles tracing the development of the arts in major regions. There are articles on all subject areas in Medieval art including biographies of major artists, architects and patrons; countries, cities, and sites; cultures and styles (Anglo-Saxon art, Carolingian art, Coptic art, Early Christian art, Romanesque, Gothic, Insular art, Lombard art, Merovingian art, Ottonian art, and Viking art); ivories, books and illuminated manuscripts, metalwork, architecture, painting, tapestries, sculpture, mosaics, reliquaries, and more.
Part of the acclaimed Grove Art family of encyclopedias, The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture is lavishly illustrated with nearly 470 black-and-white images and 170 color plates.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History Reference library
Over 700 entries
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History offers a record of the nation’s values, aspirations, anxieties, and beliefs as expressed in both everyday life and formal bodies of thought. Over the past twenty years, the field of cultural history has moved to the center of American historical studies, and has come to encompass the experiences of ordinary citizens in such arenas as reading and religious practice as well as the accomplishments of prominent artists and writers. Some of the most imaginative scholarship in recent years has emerged from this burgeoning field. The scope of this work reflects that development: the encyclopedia incorporates popular entertainment ranging from minstrel shows to video games, middlebrow ventures like Chautauqua lectures and book clubs, and preoccupations such as “perfectionism” and ‘wellness’ that have shaped Americans’ behavior at various points in the past and that continue to influence attitudes in the present. The work also make available recent scholarly insights into the writings of political scientists, philosophers, feminist theorists, social reformers, and other thinkers whose works have furnished the underpinnings of Americans’ civic activities and personal concerns. Anyone wishing to understand the hearts and minds of the inhabitants of the United States from the early days of settlement to the twenty-first century will find the encyclopedia invaluable.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History expands and updates the coverage of this subject found in The Oxford Companion to United States History, the award-winning 2001 publication edited by Paul Boyer (Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison).
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History Reference library
Over 450 entries
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History offers both assessment and analysis of the key episodes, issues and actors in the military and diplomatic history of the United States. At a time of war, in which ongoing efforts to recalibrate American diplomacy are as imperative as they are perilous, the Oxford Encyclopedia is the first recourse for scholars wishing to deepen their understanding of the crucial features of the historical and contemporary foreign policy landscape and its perennially martial components.
The crucial importance of the subject is reflected in the popularity of university courses dedicated to diplomatic and military history and the enduring appeal of international relations (IR) as a political science discipline drawing on both. The Oxford Encyclopedia is a basic reference tool across both disciplines. Entries are written by top diplomatic and military historians and key scholars of international relations from within the American academy, supplemented, as is appropriate for an encyclopedia of diplomacy, with entries from foreign-based academics, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History expands and updates the coverage of this subject found in The Oxford Companion to United States History, the award-winning 2001 publication edited by Paul Boyer (Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison).
The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History Reference library
Over 450 entries
Over the past forty years, social historians have drawn on new sources and methodologies to shift the focus of historical interest to the experiences of ordinary people. The result has been a radical rethinking of the great events and historical transformations in American history, and The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History synthesizes the extraordinary wealth of information uncovered by this inquiry. The more than 450 entries in this work examine our shared history "from the bottom up," with entries on the way automobiles shaped American lives, the westward movement of settlers and farmers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the transformation of work over time, the women's suffrage movement, counterculture, leisure activities, consumption patterns, voting habits, population movements, racial divides, and many more fascinating topics intended to help readers develop a richer framework for understanding the social experience of Americans throughout history.
The Encyclopedia expands and updates the coverage of American social history found in The Oxford Companion to United States History, the award-winning 2001 publication edited by Paul Boyer (Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison). More than 200 entirely new entries join hundreds more revised and updated entries originally published in the Companion, all of which have been signed by topic experts. Heavy use of cross-referencing assists readers searching for related entries, and selective bibliographies direct readers to the most important recent scholarly works. There is also an introduction by Paul Boyer and a topical outline of entries.
This is a reference work of unparalleled depth and scope that will introduce a new generation of readers to the complexities of this dynamic field of study.
The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.) Reference library
‘magnificent’, Boris Johnson, Daily Telegraph
‘scrupulously sourced intellectual meat of a texture that Socrates himself would savour’, Sunday Times
‘a delight for anyone with any curiosity about the roots of our Western culture … a browser’s paradise, and I would think a researcher’s quick rescuer’, Arthur Miller, London Review of Books
Over 6,700 entries
Unrivalled in scope for over sixty years, this established reference work has been thoroughly updated for this edition to reflect modern scholarship. Written by distinguished scholars from around the world, it covers all aspects of the classical world from literature and history to religion, science, and archaeology.
As well as providing factual information, the Dictionary contains many thematic entries on subjects relevant to the 21st century such as nationalism, race, gender, and ecology. Anthropology and reception have been added as new subject areas, covering topics such as creolization and kinship, as well as dance reception and translation.
The most authoritative and accessible dictionary of its kind, this is an essential reference for both scholars and non-specialists with an interest in the classical era.
Dictionary of African Biography Reference library
From the pharaohs to Frantz Fanon, Dictionary of African Biography provides a comprehensive overview of the lives of the men and women who shaped Africa’s history. Unprecedented in scale, DAB covers the whole continent from Tunisia to South Africa, from Sierra Leone to Somalia. It also encompasses the full scope of history from Queen Hatsheput of Egypt (1490–1468 BCE) and Hannibal, the military commander and strategist of Carthage (243–183 BCE), to Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana (1909–1972), Miriam Makeba, and Nelson Mandela of South Africa (b. 1918). Subjects are drawn from all walks of life, including philosophers, politicians, activists, entertainers, scholars, poets, scientists, religious figures, kings, and everyday people.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East Reference library
A joint effort between Oxford University Press and the renowned American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), this comprehensive work analyzes the archaeological and linguistic data that pertain to the broad cultural milieu of the ancient Near East, the crossroads of three of the world's most influential religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Ranging from prehistoric times up to the early centuries of the rise of Islam, the work covers the civilizations of Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Iran, Arabia, Cyprus, Egypt, and the coastal regions of North and East Africa.
With 1,100 entries written by 560 contributors from more than two dozen countries, the scope of the encyclopedia is wide and provides a full range of perspectives and approaches to archaeological endeavors. Articles span from Bahrain to Libraries and Archives to Ziggurats and offer cultural, historical, and religious perspectives to a wide range of topics of interest to both scholars and lay people.
A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000 Reference library
‘affords many pleasures to the curious... an intellectual inventory. ’ – Andrew Zurcher, Times Literary Supplement
This is the first Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology ever to be published. Dealing with the subject of documentation—which affects everyone's lives (from every-day letters, notes, and shopping lists to far-reaching legal instruments, if not autograph literary masterpieces)—Peter Beal defines, in a lively and accessible style, some 1,500 terms relating to manuscripts and their production and use in Britain from 1450 to the present day.
The entries, which range in length from one line to nearly a hundred lines each, cover terms defining types of manuscript, their physical features and materials, writing implements, writing surfaces, scribes and other writing agents, scripts, postal markings, and seals, as well as subjects relating to literature, bibliography, archives, palaeography, the editing and printing of manuscripts, dating, conservation, and such fields as cartography, commerce, heraldry, law, and military and naval matters.
The Oxford Companion to the Book Reference library
‘Provides a global approach to the world of the book and is, in every way, a monumental achievement’ – CHOICE
The Oxford Companion to the Book is a unique work of reference, covering the book, broadly conceived, throughout the world from ancient to modern times. It includes traditional subjects such as bibliography, palaeography, the history of printing, editorial theory and practice, textual criticism, book collecting, and libraries, but it also engages with newer disciplines such as the history of the book and the electronic book. It pays particular attention to how different societies shape books and how books shape societies.
The work includes a substantial series of introductory essays alongside an A-Z section of over 5,000 entries, all linked by thorough cross-referencing and served by a classified index of entries.
The essays provide histories of the subject ranging from writing systems, the ancient and the medieval book, through central aspects of book production, to editorial theory and textual criticism, the economics of print, and the sacred book, as well as 29 surveys of the history of the book around the world, including the Muslim world, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa (these can be found under ‘Essay’).
The entries cover every aspect of this exceptionally rich and diverse subject, ranging from brief definitions and biographical entries to more extensive treatments. The text is illustrated throughout with reproductions, diagrams, and examples of various typographical features.
The Companion is the only reference book of its kind in the field, and has been written by 400 of the world’s best scholars in bibliography and book history.
Encyclopedia of Africa Reference library
The Encyclopedia of Africa presents the most up-to-date and thorough reference in world history, politics, and culture on this region of ever-growing importance. Its core is comprised of entries focusing on African history and culture from 2005’s acclaimed five-volume Africana—nearly two-thirds of these 1,300 entries have been updated, revised, and expanded to reflect the most recent scholarship.
The articles cover prominent individuals, events, trends, places, political movements, art forms, business and trade, religions, ethnic groups, organizations, and countries throughout Africa. In-depth articles examine contemporary nations of sub-Saharan Africa, ethnic groups from various regions of Africa, and European colonial powers. Two hundred illustrations and demographic sidebars further guide and inform research.
The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages Reference library
The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages is an essential new reference work covering all key aspects of European history, society, and culture from 500 to 1500 A.D., as well as the Byzantine Empire, Islamic dynasties, and Asiatic peoples of the era. It is designed both for medievalists, who need a detailed and reliable reference tool, and for students and general readers seeking an accessible guide to the period. Over 800 scholars have assembled thousands of comprehensive entries, lavishly supplemented by hundreds of illustrations and dozens of maps.
The Dictionary provides balanced coverage of both the whole geographical extent of the European Middle Ages (including Germany and Austria, Spain and Portugal, the Low Countries, and Central and Eastern Europe, amongst many others), and of numerous major topics, from art and architecture, medicine, and law, to archaeology, ecclesiastical history, and languages and literature.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought Reference library
From St. Augustine and early Ethiopian philosophers to the anticolonialist movements of Pan Africanism and Negritude, The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought offers a comprehensive view of African thought, covering the intellectual tradition on the continent and throughout the diaspora. All major trends in African philosophy, political theory, and religion will be covered, as well as significant historical figures and social movements.
The encyclopedia is a nice complement to our other well-regarded reference works in African and African American history and culture. It provides background into the intellectual traditions that have shaped this history and culture.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome Reference library
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome offers a comprehensive overview of the major cultures of the classical Mediterranean world—Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman—from the Bronze Age to the fifth century CE. It also covers the legacy of the classical world and its interpretation and influence in subsequent centuries. The Encyclopedia brings the work of the best classical scholars, archaeologists, and historians together in an easy-to-use format. The nearly eleven hundred articles, written by leading scholars in the field, seek to convey the significance of the people, places, and historical events of classical antiquity, together with its intellectual and material culture. Broad overviews of literature, history, archaeology, art, philosophy, science, and religion are complimented by articles on authors and their works, literary genres and periods, historical figures and events, archaeologists and archaeological sites, artists and artistic themes and materials, philosophers and philosophical schools, scientists and scientific areas, gods, heroes, and myths.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology Reference library
From the Viking invasions to the Crusades to the Hundred Years’ War, wars were crucial agents of change in medieval Europe. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology examines all aspects of warfare and military technology in medieval times. Approximately 1,000 articles signed by the leading experts in medieval military history provide an exhaustive and accurate view of how and why wars were waged throughout Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the Crusader States between 500
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology contains articles on military leaders; battles; sieges; individual fortresses; and military technology focusing on subjects such as armor, navigational techniques, and siege warfare tactics. In addition, each regional overview—such as Britain, the Byzantine Empire, and Hungary—includes a discussion of primary sources, an introductory narrative, and an entry on historiography providing a depth and breadth of coverage not found in any other resource on the subject.
Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present Reference library
This remarkable work traces the transition from the Reconstruction Era to the age of Jim Crow, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, and the ascendant influence of African Americans on the American cultural landscape. With coverage up to and including the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States, the Encyclopedia contains approximately 1,200 fully cross-referenced entries all signed by leading scholars and experts, offering the most reliable and extensive treatment to be found on African American history in this era.
Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass Reference library
It is impossible to understand America without understanding the history of African Americans. In nearly seven hundred entries, the Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895 documents the full range of the African American experience during that period—from the arrival of the first slave ship to the death of Frederick Douglass—and shows how all aspects of American culture, history, and national identity have been profoundly influenced by the experience of African Americans. This landmark achievement, originally published in three volumes, is now available for the first time as an easily-searched, quick access e-book.
The Encyclopedia covers an extraordinary range of subjects. Major topics such as “Abolitionism,” “Black Nationalism,” the “Dred Scott case,” “Reconstruction,” “Slave Rebellions and Insurrections,” the “Underground Railroad,” and “Voting Rights” are given the in-depth treatment one would expect. But the encyclopedia also contains hundreds of fascinating entries on less obvious subjects, such as the “Black Seafarers,” “Buffalo Soldiers,” the “Catholic Church and African Americans,” “New York African Free Schools,” the “Secret Six,” and much more. In addition, the Encyclopedia offers brief biographies of important African Americans—as well as white Americans who have played a significant role in African American history—from Crispus Attucks and John Brown to Olaudah Equiano, Frederick Douglass, Sarah Grimke, Nat Turner, Phillis Wheatley, and many others.
All of the Encyclopedia's entries are accessibly written and free of jargon and technical terms. Selective bibliographies and cross-references accompanying each article direct readers to related entries within the Encyclopedia and to primary sources and scholarly works beyond it. A chronology of major events and nearly 300 black and white illustrations enhance the work's usefulness.
The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.) Quick reference
‘substantial and invaluable’ TLS
The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History is the most comprehensive and authoritative guide available to all things associated with the family and local history of the British Isles. It provides practical and contextual information for anyone enquiring into their English, Irish, Scottish, or Welsh origins and for anyone working in genealogical research, or the social history of the British Isles.
This fully revised and updated edition contains over 2,000 entries from adoption to World War records. There are recommended web links for many entries. This edition advises how to research your family tree using the internet and details the full range of online resources available. New articles for this edition are 'A Guide for Beginners', 'Links between British and American Families', 'Black and Asian Family History', and an extended feature on 'Names'.
With handy research tips, a full background to the social history of communities and individuals, and a listing of all national and local record offices with their contact details, this is an essential reference work for anyone looking for guidance on the availability of records and advice on how to approach genealogical research, as well as a fascinating read for anyone interested in the past.
The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 ed.) Quick reference
This authoritative and accessible guide to the British monarchy spans the Romano-British rulers of 55 BC to the present day House of Windsor. Generously illustrated with maps, photos, paintings, and genealogies, it contains a wealth of information on the rulers of Britain, including their policies, personalities, key dates, and legacies. Feature articles throughout the guide provide in-depth information on key royal topics, including Coronations, Regalia, the Tower of London, and - new to this edition - Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral.
Revised and updated to include recent events, such as the second marriage of Prince Charles, this new edition also contains a topical introductory article (under ‘Preface’) on the changing role of the monarchy. There is also a useful glossary and a list of recommended further reading.
Invaluable for students and teachers of British history, and ideal for anyone with an interest in the monarchy of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.) Reference library
'War has been one of the defining forces in Australian history ... Participation in war, whether actively in the armed forces or on the home front, or in opposition to a particular war, has shaped the lives of successive generations of Australians in the twentieth century. Today ... questions relating to defence do not usually seize the attention of the media, but the Department of Defence remains one of the largest single consumers of the annual federal budget, and Anzac Day continues to hold a special place in the Australian calendar.'
These words introduced the first edition of The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History in 1995. More than a decade later much has changed. Australian forces are currently employed in widely dispersed operations around the world, in particular in Iraq, Afghanistan, Timor Leste and the Solomon Islands, and questions of defence, broadly understood, have once again become a matter of public debate and controversy.
This substantial new edition of the Companion builds on the strength of the first edition. Many of the original entries have been retained, some with minor emendations or additions, while others have been rewritten in the light of recent scholarship. There are also many new entries on topics that were omitted from the first edition, either because they did not seem to warrant inclusion or simply because they were overlooked, while others have assumed a new significance in the light of developments since 1995. In all cases the editors have sought to retain the original aim of combining information, some of it technical, with analysis, and to do so in a manner that will make the Companion accessible and useful both to the general reader and to the specialist.
An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age Reference library
“An outstanding work of reference” – THES
For the first time in this innovative reference book the Romantic Age is surveyed across all aspects of British culture, rather than in literary or artistic terms alone. The Companion's two-part structure presents forty-two essays on major topics, by leading international experts, cross-referenced to an extensive alphabetical section covering all the principal figures, events, and movements in the broad culture of the period. Aimed at students and general readers as well as scholars, the essays constitute an accessible, pluralistic, and modern social history of the epoch; the alphabetical entries can either be used alongside them, for deeper information on specific subjects, or as a free-standing reference tool. The volume as a whole embraces both high and low culture, and explores its subject across the whole breadth of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
The book's multi-disciplinary approach treats Romanticism both in aesthetic terms-its meaning for painting, music, design, architecture, and above all literature-and as a historical epoch of 'revolutionary' transformations which ushered in modern democratic and industrialized society. In this period Wedgwood turned taste into a commercial enterprise, Pierce Egan took Britain by storm with his sensational accounts of low-life in the capital, and Mary Shelley created, in Frankenstein, one of the enduring myths of scientific advance. The Companion revitalizes canonical Romantic figures in the context of the historical events, political and linguistic debates, commercial pressures, and plebeian subcultures of their day, as well as bringing back into historical focus individuals and events whose impact has often been muffled or forgotten.
The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History Reference library
The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History, edited by Stanley N. Katz, is the first encyclopedia of law to provide both historical and contemporary comparisons of the world legal systems. A truly international and interdisciplinary reference work, the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History covers legal history from ancient to modern times. Approximately 1,000 articles explore the traditions of Ancient Greek Law, Ancient Roman Law, Medieval Roman Law, Chinese Law, English Common Law, Islamic Law, United States Law, and the laws of such other regions as Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. Major categories of law explained in detail include private law (contract, tort, civil procedure), public law (statutory, criminal, etc.), and higher or constitutional law.
Using statutes and administrative rulings, judicial decisions, and descriptions of legislatures, agencies, and courts, the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History offers a clear background on geographically distinctive laws, their origins, and their consequences throughout world history.
Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls Reference library
When Bedouin shepherds discovered the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947, one of the most fascinating mysteries of ancient history was exposed. Embedded in the 850 manuscripts eventually uncovered were questions about everything from the Qumran community that produced the scrolls to their impact on our understanding of biblical studies. Why were the scrolls preserved in caves? What do they reveal about such contemporary events as the life and death of Jesus, the rise of Talmudic Judaism, and the flourishing of the Essenes, Pharisees, and other Second Temple groups?
These questions are identified and explored in Lawrence Schiffman and James VanderKam’s groundbreaking Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Featuring 450 articles by an international community of 100 distinguished scholars, the Encyclopedia is the definitive account of what we know about the scrolls—their history, relevance, meaning, and the controversies that surround them. The works are viewed in historical, linguistic, and religious contexts, with archaeological evidence providing a clear basis for dating and preservation of the manuscripts.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World Reference library
Through its fluent global coverage, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World provides information about major world developments from 1750 to the present, with close attention to social, economic, cultural, and political topics.
The Encyclopedia contains articles on world events; countries; organizations; regions; ethnic groups; and themes such as social history, demography, family life, politics, economics, religion, thought, education, science and technology, and culture. It offers coverage of standard geographic and ethnic units—such as Scandinavia, Korea, or the Gypsies—in the modern period. Significant institutions such as the International Red Cross and the League of Nations are treated at length. Comprehensive coverage enables readers to broaden their research outside a particular time or region and to explore topics within the context of modern world history.
With eight volumes containing over 2,000 A-Z entries, the Encyclopedia benefits from the vast outpouring of work on world history in the modern period and on related area-studies. Informative articles by an array of leading scholars offer an unprecedented breadth of information relating to the modern world. Each article includes an up-to-date bibliography to help interested readers take their research further. In addition, the text is complemented by 700 images and 50 maps, making the Encyclopedia a powerful resource for scholars and students alike.
The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History Reference library
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, captures the experiences of women throughout history in a far-reaching, four-volume work. Although there has been extensive research on women in history by region, no other text or reference work has comprehensively covered the role women have played throughout world history. With over 650 biographies of influential women and over 600 topical articles covering topics such as geography and history, culture and society, organizations, movements, and gender studies, Women in World History is the definitive reference work in the field.
In the past thirty years there has been an explosion of research and an effort to present the experiences and contributions of women not only in the Western world, but across the globe. Scholars have investigated women’s daily lives in virtually every area and researched the leadership roles women have filled across times and regions. They have found that there is virtually no historical, social, or demographic change in which women have not been involved and by which their lives have not been affected. Women in World History helps tell this story, illuminating how women worldwide have influenced and been influenced by these historical, social, and demographic changes.
The Oxford Companion to Black British History Reference library
‘A magisterial excavation of black Britain...every student in the country should read it. ’, - Christina Patterson, The Independent
Essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the long and fascinating history of black people in the British Isles, The Oxford Companion to Black British History explores the subject from its beginnings in Roman times to the present day. From African auxiliaries stationed on Hadrian's Wall in the 2nd century AD, through John Edmonstone, who taught taxidermy to Charles Darwin, Mary Seacole, the 'Black Florence Nightingale', and Walter Tull, footballer and First World War officer, to our own day, the OCBBH provides detailed timeline charts and key dates for people and events. Key concepts such as Emancipation and Reparations are examined, while a unique collection of articles are brought together to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the black presence in Britain, and the rich and diverse contribution it has made to British society. It will appeal to a wide readership including university academics, A-level and undergraduate students, and teachers, as well as to general readers with an interest in Black British history. The publication is also particularly timely: the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority highlighted in their annual report of December 2005 the need to give more attention to the wider teaching of black history.
This book is edited by the prize-winning novelist and noted academic David Dabydeen, together with respected scholars John Gilmore and Cecily Jones, and written by more than 100 specialists.
The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.) Reference library
‘a serious reference work which, unusually, is also a rewarding read for the casual browser...[a] good Companion to student, historian or lay reader alike’ - Neil Johnston, Belfast Telegraph
In a field that has long been at the epicentre of political and academic debate, The Oxford Companion to Irish History offers a comprehensive and authoritative guide to all aspects of this fascinating and complex land. Written by a team of 91 renowned experts in the field of Irish studies, the Companion's 1,800 A-Z entries explore Irish history from earliest times to the early 21st century. Revised and updated this second edition of the Companion takes an inclusive approach to Irish history, with entries ranging from horse racing to Home Rule, bogs to boxing, and Parnell to parliaments. Traditional topics such as the rebellion of 1798 and the Irish Civil War can be found alongside entries on newly developing areas such as women's history and popular culture. It combines concise definitions with in-depth analytical essays, while its Appendices include maps and a subject index, which groups headwords into thematic batches to provide an alternative way to access the entries.
The Oxford Companion to Irish History is invaluable to students of Irish and British history as a work of general reference, and to the general public with an interest in the history and culture of Ireland.
The Oxford Companion to Scottish History Reference library
‘exemplary and wonderfully readable’ - Financial Times
Over 500,000 words in length, and written by more than 70 distinguished contributors, the Oxford Companion to Scottish History aims to cover more than 20 centuries of history, and interpret history broadly, covering areas such as archaeology, climate, culture, languages, immigration, migration, and emigration. Multi-authored entries analyse key themes such as national identity, women and society, living standards, and religious belief across the centuries in an authoritative yet approachable way. The A-Z entries are complemented by maps, genealogies, a glossary, a chronology, and an extensive guide to further reading.
More than a historical dictionary or encyclopedia, the Companion’s coverage extends from Orkney and Shetland to Galloway, from the Western Isles to the Borders, includes historical personalities such as Columba, Macbeth, and William Wallace, and stands alone - when compared to its competitors - in providing analysis of issues such as national identity and living standards and by offering readers a broader range of topics and approaches. An essential and authoritative reference source for students and academics of Scottish, British, Irish, and European history, and related fields, it will also appeal to interested general readers, including members of the Scottish Diaspora - in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the US.
The Oxford Companion to World Exploration Reference library
2007 Booklist Editor's Choice
2008 ALA/RUSA Outstanding Reference Source
From Antarctica to the North Pole, The Oxford Companion to World Exploration offers information on all topics of exploration worldwide, including advances in navigation, the discovery of the New World, polar expeditions, and the space age. In addition to examining the lives and expeditions of heroic and influential explorers, the book covers navigational and marine sciences and ranges from ancient cultures through modern space exploration. With articles from leading scholars, this landmark set offers students, scholars, and amateurs a treasure of information on this dynamic field of study.