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architecture, Civil

architecture, Civil  

Civil architecture includes public buildings and private dwellings, but excludes military constructions and rural architecture. Important public buildings comprised essentially imperial and royal ...
architecture, Ecclesiastical

architecture, Ecclesiastical  

Ecclesiastical architecture responds, from a purely practical point of view, primarily to the requirements of worship and secondarily to the needs of those who dedicate themselves to the religious ...
Auxerre

Auxerre  

City on the Yonne river, c.195 km southeast of Paris. It had become a bishopric by the mid 4th century and the seat of an important county by the 9th ...
Batalha

Batalha  

The Dominican convent of Santa Maria da Vitoria, founded by the first ruler of the Aviz dynasty, John I, in recognition of the victory obtained by his troops over those ...
Brou

Brou  

Margaret of Austria, daughter of Maximilian and of Mary of Burgundy, built the church of Brou (Ain) on the plans of Jean Perréal between 1505 and 1515, to respect a ...
Burgos

Burgos  

Located on the banks of the Arlanzón river (Castile), the city began as a military outpost in the 880s. Strategically placed, its castle kept a watch for Muslim raids. By ...
Cambrai

Cambrai  

A politically valuable frontier town, Cambrai was near the French, Flemish, and German borders, with bishops dominant from the 10th century. Cambrai was a centre of cloth production in the ...
cathedral

cathedral  

The principal church of a diocese, with which the bishop is officially associated. Recorded from Middle English (as an adjective, the noun being short for cathedral church ‘the church which contains ...
censer

censer  

A container in which incense is burnt, typically during a religious ceremony.
châsse

châsse  

The French word châsse, from capsa, “box” (capsa, urna, casse fierte), means a casket enclosing Relics, whose use probably derives from the ancient funerary urn. In the Middle Ages, this ...
crozier

crozier  

A hooked staff carried by a bishop as a symbol of pastoral office, originally denoting the person who carried a processional cross in front of an archbishop. Recorded from Middle English, the word ...
Évreux

Évreux  

City in Normandy, a bishopric by the 4th century; county seat by 989 when Robert the Dane (r. 989–1037), son of the duke of Normandy and bishop, was appointed. At ...
garland

garland  

1 Wreath-like ornament of flowers, leaves, etc.2 Festoon.3 Ornamental band around a Gothic spire etc.
Giovanni Pisano

Giovanni Pisano  

(c.1245 – after 1314)Sculptor and architect. Son of Nicola Pisano, he was trained in his father's studio and collaborated with him and his assistants in the work of the ...
Godfrey of Huy

Godfrey of Huy  

(died 1173/1174)Godfrey (Godefroy) of Huy or of Claire, a Goldsmith of the Mosan school, active c.1150, worked there in the service of the abbot of Stavelot (Belgium); he also ...
Gothic Sculpture

Gothic Sculpture  

Northern France had not ignored sculpture in the Romanesque period: its workshops had produced capitals decorated with foliage or animals, but rarely with the human figure, and the great sculpted ...
Heiligenkreuz

Heiligenkreuz  

A Cistercian abbey near Baden, in Lower Austria, founded in 1133 by the Austrian Margrave Leopold III who settled monks from Morimond there. Its rise was rapid and it very ...
Le Mans Cathedral

Le Mans Cathedral  

Under Louis the Pious was begun the chronicle of the Church of Le Mans, called Actus pontificum in urbe degentium, a collection of documents, often more legendary than historical, infinitely ...
Liturgical Objects

Liturgical Objects  

In the course of the liturgy, several objects were used at different moments of the celebration and according to the needs of the rites. Apart from liturgical books, the Middle ...
mandorla

mandorla  

(Italian, ‘almond’)An almond-shaped aura or series of lines surrounding the body of a divine personage, most frequently Christ in post-Resurrection scenes (notably the Transfiguration) when He is ...

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