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Antagoras of Rhodes

Antagoras of Rhodes  

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(first half of 3rd cent. bc)wrote an epic Thebais, epigrams, and other poems (fr. 1 Powell, verses in hymnal style on Eros, seems to be echoed by Callimachus (3) ...
Antiochus of Ascalon

Antiochus of Ascalon  

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(c.130–68 bc)Eclectic Hellenistic philosopher. Antiochus maintained the essential agreement of the opposed schools of philosophy of his time. His decisive break with Philo of Larissa arose from his ...
Arcesilaus

Arcesilaus  

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Of Pitane in Aeolis, 316/5–242/1 bc, head of the Academy from c.269. He introduced scepticism (see sceptics) into Plato's school, thereby founding the ‘New Academy’. He seems to have appealed to the ...
Aristotle

Aristotle  

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(384–322bce). Greek philosopherimportant in the early history of Western linguistics both for his general contributions to logic, rhetoric, and poetics and for a specific classification of speech ...
Aurelius Cotta, Gaius

Aurelius Cotta, Gaius  

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(RE 96)brother of the two following and nephew of P. Rutilius Rufus, was a distinguished orator and, with M. Livius Drusus (2) and P. Sulpicius Rufus, one of the ...
Carneades

Carneades  

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(c.214–129 bc)The most prominent member of the later Academy after Arcesilaus. Carneades was a distinguished sceptic, famous (especially through the report by Cicero) for impressive speeches at Rome ...
Charmadas

Charmadas  

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(168/7 –  some time after 107 bc),member of the Academy, pupil of Carneades. Mentioned by Sextus Empiricus (Πυρρώνειοι ὑποτυπώσεις 1. 220) as founder of the ‘Fourth Academy’ together with ...
Chrysippus

Chrysippus  

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(c.280–207 bc)The third leading Stoic after Cleanthes, and possibly the most productive philosopher of all time, having written 705 books, none of which survive (however, ancient books were ...
Clitomachus

Clitomachus  

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(186/7–110/9 bc)Academic sceptic and pupil of Carneades. He allegedly wrote over 400 books, mainly recording the arguments of Carneades, and became head of the Academy in 127/6. Cicero reports him as ...
Colonos

Colonos  

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A small Attic deme 2½ km. (1½ mi.) north of the Acropolis, near Plato's Academy. The deme seems to have been particularly rich in sanctuaries of gods (Poseidon Hippios, Athena ...
Crantor

Crantor  

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Of Soli in Cilicia (c. 335–275 bc), philosopher of the early Academy, and the first Platonic commentator. He studied under Xenocrates (1), and cohabited with Arcesilaus (1), whom he had ...
Critolaus

Critolaus  

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Of Phaselis, head of the Peripatetic school, was probably an old man when he took part, with Carneades (see academy) and Diogenes the Stoic (see stoicism), in the philosophers' delegation to Rome in ...
Demophanes

Demophanes  

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Sometimes named Megalophanes and Ecdemus (Plutarch Philopoemen 1), Megalopolitans (see Megalopolis). While exiled in Athens after c.265 bc they were followers of the Academic Arcesilaus (1). ...
dialectic

dialectic  

The method of reasoning that proceeds by question and answer and logical argument, famously illustrated by the dialogues of Socrates (470–399bce) as recorded by Plato (c.428–347bce). Teaching of ...
Diogenianus

Diogenianus  

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Epicurean. Eusebius quotes many passages from his polemic against Chrysippus' doctrine of fate. His date is unknown, but he probably belongs to the 2nd cent. ad, when the polemic of the New Academy ...
Dionysius I

Dionysius I  

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Of Syracuse, born c.430 bc, son of Hermocritus, a well-to-do Syracusan; wounded (408) in Hermocrates' attempted coup; secretary to the generals (406), he distinguished himself in the campaign against ...
Dionysius II

Dionysius II  

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Tyrant of Syracuse (367–357bc); born c.396, eldest son of Dionysius I and Doris; married half-sister Sophrosyne. Unwarlike and short-sighted, he was estranged from his father, who is said (perhaps ...
Dipylon

Dipylon  

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The double gateway in Athens' city wall leading into the Ceramicus and to the cemetery immediately outside the wall in that area. The gateway comprised a rectangular courtyard open on the land side, ...
Epicurus

Epicurus  

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(c.341 bc–270 bc) Greek philosopherEpicurus, who was born on the Greek island of Samos, traveled to Athens when he was about 18 years old, and received military training. He then taught at Mytilene ...
Eros

Eros  

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In Greek mythology, the god of love, son of Aphrodite; his Roman equivalent is Cupid. The name comes via Latin from Greek, literally ‘sexual love’.A winged statue of Eros over the fountain in ...

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